.V., et al. (2002). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (Book 2) (pp. 147–150). 16. Šiaučiūnas, R., Baltakys, K. & Baltušnikas A. (2007). Instrumental analysis of the silicate materials , Kaunas. 17. Scanning Electron Microscope . Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.purdue.edu/rem/rs/sem.htm . 18. Jegatheesan, A., Murugan, J., Neelakantaprasad, B. & Rajarajan, G. (2012). FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA Investigations of Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADP) Single Crystal. International Journal of Computer Applications , 53 (4), 15–20. DOI: 10
Kristina Jančaitienė and Rasa Šlinkšienė
Ronald L. Parsley, Mary H. Lawson and John Pojeta Jr.
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References 1. Sato, K., Aoki, M., Ogawa, M., Hashimoto, T., Panyella, D. & Noyori, R. (1997). A halide-free method for olefin epoxidation with 30 % hydrogen peroxide. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 70, 905-915. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.csj.jp/journals/bcsj/J-STAGE/7004/pdf/70_905.pdf. DOI: 10.1246/ bcsj.70.905. 2. Venturello, C. & D’Aloisio, R. (1988). Quaternary ammonium tetrakis(diperoxotungsto)phosphates(3-) as a new class of catalysts for efficient alkene epoxidation with hydrogen peroxide. J. Org. Chem
Ewa Olkowska, Marek Ruman, Magdalena Drąg-Śmigalska and Żaneta Polkowska
-Wawrzkiewicz M., 2007, Koncepcja przyrodniczo-społecznego wykorzystania zalewisk na przykładzie zlewni rzeki Kłodnicy (The concept of natural and social use of flooding areas on the example of Kłodnica River) [typescript], Instytut Ekologii Terenów Uprzemysłowionych, Katowice, 47 pp (in Polish). Ferrer I., Furlong, E.T., 2002, Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples, Anal. Chem. 74(6): 1275–1280. Fuerstenau M.C., Jameson G., Yoon R.H. (eds
Zahia Benredjem, Rachid Delimi and Assia Khelalfa
This paper discusses the extraction of cadmium from phosphate ore by the washing method. Various parameters were investigated for the cadmium extraction from phosphate ore. The results from extraction tests showed that cadmium extraction depends on the nature and concentration of the extracting agent, the liquid/phosphate ore ratio, the temperature and the solution pH. The effi ciency of the nine extracting agents for removing cadmium from phosphate ore was found to be in the order: Na2EDTA > citric acid > tartric acid > ammonium citrate > calcium chloride > ammonium acetate > ammonium chloride > oxalic acid > ammonium hydroxide. In this study cadmium extraction kinetics was best described by the product layer diffusion control model.
Łukasz Nowak, Magdalena Regel-Rosocka, Barbara Marszałkowska and Maciej Wiśniewski
Removal of Zn(II) from chloride acidic solutions with hydrophobic quaternary salts
The equilibrium of zinc(II) extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions with phosphonium and ammonium quaternary salts and their application as carriers in polymer inclusion membranes were studied. The most efficient was the extraction of zinc with the use of chlorides and bromide of ammonium and phosphonium salt (more than 90%). Quaternary ammonium and phosphonium chlorides and bromide are efficient extractants of zinc(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Two-fold molar excess of extractant over Zn(II) is necessary for efficient extraction (100%). Solvent extraction power of the extractants studied decreases with increasing hydrophobicity of the anion in the following sequence: QPCl > QPBr > QPBis > QACl > QABF4 > QPBF4 > QPPF6 > QPNtf2. A solution of 1 M H2 SO4 is chosen as the best stripping phase from the technological and economical point of view. Transport across polymeric inclusion membrane enables concentration of the stripping solution; however it takes a very long time.
Aleš Kučera, Jaromír Šikl, Filip Oulehle, Pavel Šamonil, Karel Marosz, Ruslan Hleb, Jakub Houška and Jakub Hruška
This paper presents the correlations between two different analytical methods of assessing soil nutrient contents. Soil nutrient content measurements measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS ) method, which uses barium chloride extraction, were compared with those of the now-unused Gedroiz method, which uses ammonium chloride extraction (calcium by titration, magnesium, potassium and sodium by weighing). Natural forest soils from the Ukrainian Carpathians at the localities of Javorník and Pop Ivan were used. Despite the risk of analysis errors during the complicated analytical procedure, the results showed a high level of correlation between different nutrient content measurements across the whole soil profile. This allows concentration values given in different studies to be linearly recalculated on results of modern method. In this way, results can be used to study soil’s chemical changes over time from the soil samples that were analysed in the past using labour-intensive and time-consuming methods with a higher risk of analytic error.
Darina Lacková, Iveta Ondrejkovičová and Marián Koman
The title compound, (NH4)2[FeCl5H2O] has been prepared by reaction between iron(III) chloride and ammonium chloride which was formed by hydrolysis of isonicotinamide or thionicotinamide in ethanol. The characterization was based on elemental analysis and infrared spectra. The crystal structure of the title compound has been refined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method at 293 K. Crystals are orthorhombic, Pnma, with unit cell parameters: a = 13.760(1) A, b = 9.960(1) A, c = 7.060(1) A, Z = 4 and R = 3.5 %. The iron(III) atom in [FeCl5(H2O)]2- ion is approximately octahedrally coordinated by five Cl atoms and one O atom of H2O molecule. This distortion is caused by the extensively hydrogen-bonded lattice. Structural parameters and IR spectra of similar compounds are compared and discussed.
R. Tamilarasan, Sunil Baffna, A. Anand-Prabu and M. Dharmendira-Kumar
Salt effect on the enthalpy of mixing of 2-propanol + acetic acid at 303.15 K
This paper presents the effect of two dissolved inorganic salts (zinc chloride, ZnCl2 and ammonium chloride, NH4Cl) on the enthalpy of mixing (H E) of 2-propanol + acetic acid binary system measured at 303.15 K using an isothermal displacement calorimeter with vapour space. A decreasing trend in the excess enthalpy of mixing values in the presence of ZnCl2 and NH4Cl indicate the endothermic behavior of this system. The Redlich-Kister equation has been used to fit the experimental H E data. The deviations from the ideal value and binary parameters were calculated and reported.
Andrzej Plak, Piotr Bartmiński and Ryszard Dębicki
The aim of the study was to assess the impact of technosols and geomechanically unchanged soils of the Lublin agglomeration on the concentrations of arsenic and phosphorus, and on selected forms of these elements. Arsenic and phosphorus concentrations were determined in the urban soils of Lublin (Poland), and the relationship between their degree of contamination and different types of land use was estimated. The samples collected were subjected to sequential analysis, using ammonium sulphate, acid ammonium phosphate, oxalate buffer (also with ascorbic acid) and aqua regia for arsenic, and ammonium chloride, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and aqua regia for phosphorus. The influence of the land use forms was observed in the study. The greatest amount of arsenic (19.62 mg kg−1) was found in the industrial soils of Lublin, while the greatest amount of phosphorus (580.4 mg kg−1) was observed in non-anthropogenic soils (mainly due to the natural accumulation processes of this element). Fractions of arsenic and phosphorus obtained during analysis showed strong differentiation. Amorphic and crystalline fractions of arsenic, bound with iron oxides, proved to have the highest share in the total arsenic pool. The same situation was noted for phosphorus.