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Laviniu Bojor and Mircea Cosma

References 1. Kenneth Katzman, Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy, 20.01.2015, available at https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL30588.pdf 2. SIGAR - (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 3rd trimester/2014). 3. Ibidem 4. Ibidem 5. Ibidem 6. SIGAR - (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 1st trimester/2015), 79 7. SIGAR - (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 3rd

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Kaneshko Sangar

References Adler, Emanuel (1997): Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics. European Journal of International Relations 3 (3): 319-363. UNODC (2010): ‘Afghanistan World Leader in Hashish Production’, United Nations Office on Drug and Crime: available at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2010/March/afghanistan-leads-in-hashish-production-says-unodc.html (31 March 2015). Interfax (2012): ‘Afghanistan-Pup zemli, SShA ottuda ne uidut, uveren Rogozin’, Interfax: available at http

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Rune Ottosen

.) Pressetisk front. Festskrift til Odd Raaum. Kristiansand: IJ/Høyskoleforlaget. Parenti, Michael (1993) Inventing Reality. The Politics of News Media. New York: St.Martin’s Press. Pilger, John (1998) Hidden Agendas. London: Vintage. Rossland, Irene E. (2003) Pressetur til Kirgisistand og Afghanistan 7.-15. mai 2002: -Gir norske journalsiter støtte til den norske deltakelsen i Afghanistan? Semesteroppgave på hovedfagskurset “War and Peace Journalism” våren 2003. Solomon, Normon (2001) War Needs Good Public

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Andrius Bivainis

References Agreement On Provisionl Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-Establishment of Permnent Government Institutions, the UN Agreement signed December 5, 2001. Available at: <http://www.un.org/News/dh/latest/afghan/afghan-agree.htm> [Accessed 2 July 2015]. Barfield T., 2011. “Afghanistan‘s Ethnic Puzzle“, Foreign Affairs, volume 90, September/October issue, p. 54-65. Biddle S., 2013. “Ending the War in Afghanistan”, Foreign Affairs, volume 96, September/October issue, p. 49-58. CIA

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Jeremy Simpson

References Afghanistan NGO Safety Office (ANSO) (2007-12) ‘Country Reports’ and ‘Quarterly Data Reports’. http://reliefweb.int/updates?country=13&search=ANSO&page=1#content (consulted 25/11/14). Atkinson, W. (2007) ‘Beck, individualization and the death of class: a critique’. British Journal of Sociology , 5(3):349-366. Bhatia, M. (2008) ‘Armed Groups in Afghanistan’. In Bhatia, M. and M. Sedra (eds.) Afghanistan, Arms and Conflict: Armed groups, disarmament and security in a post-war society , pp. 72-110. Oxon: Routledge. Beck, U

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Petra Belaňová, Martina Ohlídalová and Ľubomír Novák

References ARUZ, Joan a VALTZ FINO, Elizabetta. Afghanistan. Forging Civilizations along the Silk Road. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. ISBN 978-0300179545. CALLIGARO, Thomas. Analyse des matériaux. Tillia Tepe, étude des incrustations et de l’or, 2006. In: CAMBON, Pierre a JARRIGE, Jean-François. Afghanistan, les trésors retrouvés. Catalogue du exposition temporale du Musée Guimet. Paris: 2006, s. 292-294. CAMBON, Pierre a JARRIGE, Jean- François. Afghanistan, les trésors retrouvés. Catalogue d

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Dovydas Rogulis

Abstract

Abstract This thesis seeks to find out how NATO military interventions in Kosovo, Libya and Afghanistan have affected relations with Russia. In order to achieve the aim and hypothesis of the study, the critical geopolitical approach is chosen as a theoretical framework. A schematic critical geopolitics conceptualization of Gearóid Ó. Tuathail is used as the method of research. This thesis mostly pays attention to three essential parts of the critical geopolitics: “formal geopolitics” (analyses of think tanks, specialists, etc.), “practical geopolitics” (the decisions of policy makers, official statements, documents, strategies and speeches) and “popular geopolitics” (the discourse of the media and surveys). The combination of these three elements allows determining the certain NATO’s and Russian geopolitical discourses towards crises in Kosovo, Libya and Afghanistan. With regard to evidences of crises, NATO’s and Russian geopolitical discourses are assessed from very positive, positive, neutral, to negative and very negative. It provides an opportunity to see how both sides have acknowledged these crises and how in long terms NATO’s military interventions in Kosovo, Libya and Afghanistan have influenced relations with Russia in international order. Moreover, descriptive method, discourse analysis and a comparative approach are used to scrutinize Russian and NATO’s geopolitical discourses towards crises. The analyses of NATO’s and Russian geopolitical discourses show that the hypothesis different NATO and Russian geopolitical discourses towards crises in Kosovo, Libya and Afghanistan have affected reciprocal relations is correct. The crisis of Kosovo in 2008 marks the end of the Russian flexible policy towards NATO and marks a new beginning of a permanently hostile geopolitical discourse against NATO in Europe. NATO military interventions in Kosovo, Libya and Afghanistan have negatively affected relations with Russia mostly in Europe. Mutual cooperation and diplomatic disputes towards crises in Libya and Afghanistan are minor in comparison with the NATO-Russian relations in the European continent. Consequently, Russia concentrates most of its attention to the geopolitical tradition towards Europe.

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Ringailė Kuokštytė

References Afghanistan International Security Assistance Force. "ISAF: Key Facts and Figures." (March 4, 2011) // http://www.isaf.nato.int/images/stories/File/Placemats/PLACEMAT.MARCH%2004.pdf Afghanistan ISAF. "ISAF Placement Archives." (March 2011) // http://www.isaf.nato.int/isaf-placemat-archives.html Associated Press (AP). "Nato Air Forces to Train over Baltic Countries." (March 2, 2010) // http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2011229377_apeunatobalticairpatrols

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Roger Lien, Kristian Firing, Mons Bendixen and Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

1 Introduction Military personnel from several nations have been deployed to different conflict areas abroad, such as Afghanistan. The personnel who have worked in a threatening environment or have been exposed to stressful events might initiate a meaning-making process, as such experiences have the potential to be inconsistent with global meaning ( Park 2010 ). Global meaning is described as our goals and the established beliefs about the world, the self, and the self in the world ( Park and Folkman 1997 ). Such goals and beliefs constitute a framework

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Vladimír Krepl, Petr Kment and Zdeněk Vališ

Abstract

This article deals with the environmental development of the post-socialist countries of Central Asia, Mongolia, and Afghanistan. We aimed at such targets and indicators used in the seventh Millennium Development Goal that have been documented with consistent and comparable data from the United Nations, namely carbon dioxide emissions and energy use and improved water sources and facilities. The countries of interest cannot be considered as significant global CO2 emitters, however, the steady tendency towards industrialization and urbanization can be seen in the data. The data on proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities are optimistic even on a global scale. However, the regional specifics of Central Asia discover further significant dimensions of the water problem, especially water pollution.