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O. K. Hansen and U. B. Nielsen

References APSIT, V. J., R. R. NAKAMURA and N. C. WHEELER (1989): Differential Male Reproductive Success in Douglas-Fir. Theor. Appl. Genet. 77, 681-684. ARNOLD, M. L. (1997): Natural Hybridization and Evolution, Oxford University Press, New York, New York. ARONEN, T., T. NIKKANEN, A. HARJU, H. Tiimonen and H. HAGGMAN (2002): Pollen competition and seed-siring success in Picea abies, Theor.Appl.Genet. 104, 638-642. BREWBAKER, J. L. and B. H. KWACK (1963): Essential Role of Calcium Ion in Pollen

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Elżbieta Chomicz-Zegar, Stanisław Niemtur, Mariusz Kapsa and Sławomir Ambroży

fir ( Abies alba ) less vulnerable to extraction damage than Norway spruce ( Picea abies )? European Journal of Forest Research 126: 121–129. Krzan Z. 1985. Występowanie zgnilizny odziomkowej świerków w drzewostanach regla dolnego Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego. Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody 6(2): 5–16. Luyssaert S., Schulze E-D., Börner A., Knohl A., Hessenmöller D., Law B.E., Ciais P., Grace J. 2008. Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455: 213–215. Mattila U., Nuutinen T. 2007. Assessing the incidence of butt rot in

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Helena Rybak-Chmielewska, Teresa Szczęsna, Ewa Waś, Katarzyna Jaśkiewicz and Dariusz Teper

Summary

Coniferous honeydew honey, mainly Abies alba was characterised. Samples chosen for the study had organoleptic traits characteristic for the variety: greenish, opalescence tone of brown colour, mild, sweet flavour with pleasant, slightly resinous aftertaste and aroma as well as electrical conductivity over 0.95 mS/cm. To define composition and physicochemical parameters of the variety, contents of water and total sugars were determined. In addition various carbohydrates were identified and their contents were assessed as well. These were: fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, turanose, trehalose, isomaltose, malezitose. Other examined parameters related to honey quality were: free acidity, pH, the content of 5-hydroxymetylofurfural (HMF), the main amino acid - proline, and the activity of α-amylase enzyme (Diastase Number). The following properties were proven to be characteristic for this variety: high electrical conductivity with the average value of 1.14 mS/cm, ranging from 0.96 to 1.32 mS/cm; content of monosaccharides lower by few percent in relation to other honey varieties (from 58.2 to 67.4 g/100 g; on average 62.0 g/100 g) and a higher content of disaccharides and trisaccharide - melezitose. The presence of this sugar confirms that a considerable part of the honey was produced from honeydew. The average value of melezitose was 3.2 g/100 g, ranging from 0.9 to 5.9 g/100 g. Also, the results of the pH measurements were slightly higher than in other honey varieties (from 4.23 to 4.99; on average 4.63). The colour value in mm Pfund ranged from 74 to 105, with the average of 93.

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Peter Kučera

Remarks on Higher-Ranked Syntaxa with Abies Alba in Central Europe: Their Concepts and Nomenclature

Although the issue of classifying Abies alba woodlands has been tackled by many authors, the greatest influence had a trend-setting work of Braun-Blanquet (Braun-Blanquet et al. 1939): he described the suballiance Abieti-Piceenion Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl et al. 1939. Another important conception was created later by Oberdorfer (1957) who later (1962) differentiated suballiances Galio-Abietenion and Vaccinio-Abietenion. The main difference concerns the syntaxonomical approach to Abies woodlands: according to Braun-Blanquet, the presence (or dominance) of Abies alba is not evaluated separately: montane coniferous forests with the relevant character species are classified into the suballiance Abieti-Piceenion, meant as opposite to the subalpine coniferous forests. By contrast, Oberdorfer treated woodlands with the high abundance/dominance of Abies alba and natural absence of Fagus sylvatica as distinct types of syntaxa and divided further the montane Abies woodlands according to their phytocoenotic differences. These two fundamental conceptions were used alternatively by various authors, and not always in accordance with the original authors' intention. Therefore it is important to draw the attention of phytosociologists to differences resulting from the syntaxonomical concept chosen.

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Adolf F. Korczyk

puszczy Białowiezkiey. Dziennik Wileński, 9: 207-217. Graebner P. 1918. Diepflanzengeographischen Verhaltnisse von Bialovies. Bialowies in deutscher Verwaltung,4: 219-250. Gunia S., Due J. E., Kramer W. 1972. Die Weißtanne (Abies alba Mill.) im Nordosten ihres natürlichen Verbreitungsgebietes. Forstarchiv, 43: 84-91 Gunia S., Kowalski M. 1968. Jodła pospolita (Abies alba Mill.) w Puszczy Białowieskiej [Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Białowieża Primeval Forest]. Sylwan, 112: 59-66. Hegi G. 1965. Abies alba

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Ryszard Bis and Dorota Dobrowolska

References Battipaglia G., Saurer M., Cherubini P., Siegwolf R., Cotrufo M. 2009. Tree rings indicate different drought resistance of a native ( Abies alba Mill.) and a nonnative ( Picea abies (L.) Karst.) species co-occurring at a dry site in Southern Italy. Forest Ecology and Management , 257: 820-828. Becker B., Giertz-Siebenlist V. 1970. Eine über 1100 jahrige mitteleuropaische Tannenchronologie. Flora , 159: 310-346. Bert D. 1992. Silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) shows an

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Władysław Barzdajn

References Barzdajn W. 1998. Strategia restytucji jodły pospolitej w Sudetach. Mat. seminarium naukowo-technicznego pt. "Odbudowa lasów w Sudetach", Szklarska Poręba, 1-2 października 1998. Barzdajn W. 2000. Strategia restytucji jodły pospolitej ( Abies alba Mill.) w Sudetach. Sylwan , 44 (2): 63-77. Broda J. 1965. Puszcze karpackie i sudeckie. [W:] Dzieje lasów leśnictwa i drzewnictwa w Polsce. Polskie Towarzystwo Leśne, Stowarzyszenie Inżynierów i Techników Leśnictwa i

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Henryk Szeligowski, Leszek Bolibok, Włodzimierz Buraczyk and Stanisław Drozdowski

References Barzdajn W. 2009. Adaptacja różnych pochodzeń jodły pospolitej ( Abies alba Mill.) do warunków Sudetów. Leśne Prace Badawcze , 70 (1): 49-58. Bąk G. 2007. Wartość polskich pochodzeń jodły pospolitej ( Abies alba Mill.) na powierzchni doświadczalnej w LZD Rogów. Praca magisterska. Katedra Hodowli Lasu SGGW. Fober H. 1984. Doświadczenie proweniencyjne nad jodłą pospolitą ( Abies alba Mill.) założone w 1977 roku. Arboretum Kórnickie , 28: 145

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Katarzyna Nawrot-Chorabik and Robert Jankowiak

Synthesis. (Eds Lieutier F., Day K.R., Battisti A., Grégoire J.C., Evans H.). Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers: 185-223. Kowalski T., Butin H. 1989. Die natürliche Astreinigung und ihre biologischen Voraussetzungen. IV. Die Pilzflora der Tanne ( Abies alba Mill.). Zeitschrift für Mykologie , 55: 189-193. Kvaalen H., Christiansen E., Johnsen Ø., Solheim H. 2001. Is there a negative geneticcorrelation between initiation of embryogenic tissue and fungus susceptibility in Norway spruce? Canadian Journal of Forest

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Monika Aniszewska, Jacek Brzózko and Witold Zychowicz

-012-0007-3. Aniszewska M., Błuszkowska U. 2016.Variability of silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) cones – variability of cone parameters. Leśne Prace Badawcze 77(3): 221–229. Doi 10.1515/frp-2016-0024. Aniszewska M., Gendek A., Śliwińska J. 2017.Variability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) cones – variability of scale surface area. Leśne Prace Badawcze 78(1): 5–13. Doi 10.1515/frp-2017-0001. Aniśko E., Witkowska O., Załęski A. 2001. Ustalenie wilgotności nasion przeznaczonych do przechowywania (wartości graniczne), szczególnie jodły, jaworu, brzozy, olszy czarnej, lipy