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Ingrida Mazeikiene, Darius Kviklys, Jurate Brone Siksnianiene, Dainius Zinkus and Vidmantas Stanys
Neda Zuļģe, Anna Kāle, Alina Gospodaryk, Kristīne Vēvere and Inga Moročko-Bičevska
Apples and pears are among the most important commercial fruit species grown in Latvia. Because of suitability to local climatic conditions, mainly domestic cultivars and cultivars originating in neighbouring countries are grown. The planting material of pome fruits produced and used for establishment of new orchards in Latvia corresponds to the Conformitas Agraria Communitatis standard due to the unavailability of nuclear stock. To establish virus-tested, experimental nuclear stock for apple and pear, one to two years old candidate plants were exposed to thermotherapy at +38 °C for 40 to 70 days. The mother trees and candidate plants before treatment were tested for the presence of the four most widespread pome fruit viruses by RT-PCR. The shoot tips of the heat-treated plants were grafted onto seedling rootstocks and were re-tested for the four viruses by RT-PCR during the next three to five vegetation seasons. Several plants of apple cultivars ‘Dace’, ‘Zarja Alatau’, ‘Rubin’, and ‘Ausma’ remained infected either with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem growing virus or Apple stem pitting virus after the thermotherapy. Tests on woody indicators were carried out to determine possible presence of graft-transmittable organisms according to EPPO guidelines for the establishment of nuclear stock material for pome fruits.
Alina Gospodaryk, Inga Moročko-Bičevska, Neda Pūpola and Anna Kāle
, J. C. (1999). Virus Diseases of Fruit Trees . Paris: Centre techniques interprofessionnel des fruits et legumes. 202 pp. Diekmann, M., Putter, C. A. J. (1996). FAO/IPGRI technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm. In: Diekmann, M., Putter, C. A. J. (eds.). Stone Fruits, No. 16. (pp. 38-39). Rome: FAO Publication Division. Domínguez, S., Aparicio, F., Sánchez-Navarro, J., Cano, A., Pallás, V., García-Brunton, J. (1998). Studies on the incidence of Ilarviruses and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apricot
L. Winkowska, L. Grimova and P. Rysanek
The phytosanitary status of wild growing stone fruit trees and shrubs was examined in surveys conducted in 2013 and 2014 in the region of Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. A total of 159 leaf samples were collected (42 cherries, 77 bird cherries, 10 cherry plums, 13 blackthorns, 2 round plums, 15 plums) and tested for the presence of Plum pox virus (PPV), Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Cherry virus A (CVA), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV), Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV), and Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Totally 28.3% of the investigated trees and shrubs were infected by at least one monitored virus. Mixed infection occurred in 5 out of 159 trees (3.1%). PPV was the most widespread virus (13.2% of samples), followed by PDV (11.3%). Contrary to these two most relevant viral pathogens, the incidence of CLRV and CVA was negligible in individually growing trees of the genus Prunus and ApMV, ACLSV, CGRMV, and CNRMV were not detected at all.