. Die von den Städten der Industrieländer ausgehenden Emissionen stellen im Hinblick auf die globalen Belastungen und Ursachen des Treibhauseffektes das Hauptproblem dar. Es treten jedoch Länder wie China, Indien und Brasilien hinzu, deren Urbanisierungs- und Einkommensentwicklungen weitere negative Schübe in Bezug auf die Zunahme von Treibhausgasemissionen erwarten lassen. Da die Städte das Hauptproblem sind, bietet es sich natürlich an, dort zentral einzugreifen und den Gedanken einer „Zero-Emission-City“ (ZEC), einer möglichst emissionsfreien Stadt aufzugreifen
References  Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Clean Gas Technologies – towards zero-emission repowering of Pomerania, Trans IFFM, no 124, 2012, 51–80.  Ziółkowski P., Zakrzewski W., Badur J., Innowacyjny obieg termodynamiczny oparty na poślizgu, mobilności, transpiracji i innych zjawiskach nano-przepływowych , [in:] B. Węglowski, P. Duda (Eds.), Analiza systemów energetycznych , Wyd. Pol. Krakowskiej, Kraków 2013, 351–360.  Ziółkowski P., Badur J., Selection of thermodynamic parameters in order to improve the environmental performance on the gas
References 1. Costanza, R. et al . (2007). Quality of Life: An Approach Integrating Opportunities, Human Needs, and Subjective Well-Being . Ecological Economics, 61, 267-276. 2. Pauli, G. (1996). Breakthroughs. What Business Can Offer Society. Epsilon Press Ltd. 3. Pauli, G. (1998). Upsizing. The Road to ZeroEmissions. More Jobs, More Income and No Pollution. Greenleaf Publishing. 4. Gravitis, J. (1998). A Biochemical approach to attributing value to biodiversity - The Concept of the ZeroEmissions Biorefinery. Presented at the 4th Annual Word Congress
The CO2 emissions from a building’s power system will change over the life time of the building, and this need to be taken into account to verify whether a building is Zero Emission (ZEB) or not.
This paper describes how conversion factors between electricity demand and emissions can be calculated for the European power system in a long term perspective through the application of a large scale electricity market model (EMPS). Examples of two types of factors are given: a conversion factor for average emissions per kWh for the whole European power system as well as a marginal factor for a specific region.
The development and growing availability of modern technologies, along with more and more severe environment protection standards which frequently take a form of legal regulations, are the reason why attempts are made to find a quiet and economical propulsion system not only for newly built watercraft units, but also for modernised ones. Correct selection of the propulsion and supply system for a given vessel affects significantly not only the energy efficiency of the propulsions system but also the environment - as this selection is crucial for the noise and exhaust emission levels. The paper presents results of experimental examination of ship power demand performed on a historic passenger ship of 25 m in length. Two variants, referred to as serial and parallel hybrid propulsion systems, were examined with respect to the maximum length of the single-day route covered by the ship. The recorded power demands and environmental impact were compared with those characteristic for the already installed conventional propulsion system. Taking into account a high safety level expected to be ensured on a passenger ship, the serial hybrid system was based on two electric motors working in parallel and supplied from two separate sets of batteries. This solution ensures higher reliability, along with relatively high energy efficiency. The results of the performed examination have revealed that the serial propulsion system is the least harmful to the environment, but its investment cost is the highest. In this context, the optimum solution for the ship owner seems to be a parallel hybrid system of diesel-electric type
The development of renewable energy technologies (RET) depends on a wide range of criteria and regulations. To evaluate which RET (solar photovoltaic (PV), wind power plants (WPP), hydroelectric power plants (HPP) or bio-energy plants) have the greatest potential in Latvia, the most suitable approach is a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). The proposed MCDM methodology involves TOPSIS model based on information entropy, which contributes as a criteria weighting tool. The study investigates seven main criteria from technical, economic, environmental and social aspects. Firstly, each alternative country is analysed due to the chosen RET criteria. Secondly, the assessment is extended, comparing specific data with Latvia’s MCDM of RET results. The research results show that, according to the best available examples of RET, hydro energy plants still play a substantial role for Latvia, the most promising RET development is based on bio-energy and wind renewable energies.
This article reviews the emerging phenomena of electric buses’ deployment in Europe and Belarus within the general framework of the concept of sustainable and electric urban mobility. The author offers a brief overview of electric bus technologies available on the market and a spatial analysis of fleet deployment in Europe. The analysis of the spatial structure of the distribution of e-buses in Europe indicated that, in terms of the number of vehicles in operation, the UK and the Netherlands are the regional leaders, while in terms of the number of cities testing e-buses – Germany, Sweden, and Poland are the leaders. The analysis showed that the main factors supporting the distribution of innovative technology and public support are legislative and regulative framework as well as clear strategic planning and cooperation between local administrations and transportation authorities. Other important aspects, such as network building features, and the location of the charging infrastructure were also discussed. The analysis of the case study of Minsk (the first city to introduce electric buses in Belarus) outlined the typical limiting factors for all types of markets: high battery costs and dependency on infrastructure; recommendations are given to emphasise bus fleet replacement (instead of trolleybus) and to develop a comprehensive sustainable urban mobility strategy.
For the third time in the history of humankind, it is trying to implement e-mobility. There is a reasonable hope that this attempt will succeed this time. E-mobility is generally regarded as a zero emission. This sentence can only be true in a very small scope, as only in relation to selected parameters and in a very limited its dimension. The situation can change radically. If it will be take into account, the emissions in the production of electricity is necessary for the movement of this type of vehicles Second problem is the energy use amount. We know today that the energy consumption of electric cars, especially in long-term operation is too big. This general knowledge is not confirmed by research results. Both relevant databases and methods of their analysis are missing. This is an unfavourable situation because it is not possible to verify the effects of various changes introduced e.g. in the construction or technology of cars. This publication can be included in those in which it is shown how to change this situation.
The analysis of the results of long-term car use can be used as a verification of various development works, especially in e-mobility, which is only just starting. In the future, it will be need to create the appropriate “big data” databases and a number of tools to analyse the data collected there.
At present, LNG vessels without reliquefaction plants consume the BOG (boil-off gas) in their engines and the excess is burned in the gas combustion unit without recovering any of its energy content. Excess BOG energy could be captured to produce H2, a fuel with high energy density and zero emissions, through the installation of a reforming plant. Such H2 production would, in turn, require on-board storage for its subsequent consumption in the propulsion plant when navigating in areas with stringent anti-pollution regulations, thus reducing CO2 and SOX emissions. This paper presents a review of the different H2 storage systems and the methods of burning it in propulsion engines, to demonstrate the energetic viability thereof on board LNG vessels. Following the analysis, it is identified that a pressurised and cooled H2 storage system is the best suited to an LNG vessel due to its simplicity and the fact that it does not pose a safety hazard. There are a number of methods for consuming the H2 generated in the DF engines that comprise the propulsion plant, but the use of a mixture of 70% CH4-30% H2 is the most suitable as it does not require any modifications to the injection system. Installation of an on-board reforming plant and H2 storage system generates sufficient H2 to allow for almost 3 days’ autonomy with a mixture of 70%CH4-30%H2. This reduces the engine consumption of CH4 by 11.38%, thus demonstrating that the system is not only energy-efficient, but lends greater versatility to the vessel.
References  Cipolla, G., The increasing demand of near-zeroemissions for urban transportation , 3 rd International Congress on Combustion Engines, Poland 2009.  Luft, S., Podstawy budowy silników , Wydawnictwo Komunikacji i Łączności, Warszawa, 2012.  Mamala, J., Kompensacja niedostatku siły napędowej w procesie rozpędzania samochodu osobowego , z. 290, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Opolskiej, Opole 2011.  Mamala, J., Sposób zamiany efektywnego stopnia sprężania silnika spalinowego o spalaniu wewnętrznym i układ do zmiany efektywnego stopnia