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Example of integrated use of surface and groundwater resources in irrigation in Croatia
Irrigation in Croatia was until recently a neglected measure in food production, especially in continental part of the country. Development of drainage system in the last fifty years was more important due to the problems caused by floods and excess water in the fields. In the last decade the hydrological regime has been changed and drought events became as frequent as flood events, causing even more damage. Future development of agriculture in the northern counties of Croatia depends on the introduction of new, profitable crops which imply irrigation as an essential factor of future social and economic growth.
The first step in the implementation of irrigation was the development of National Irrigation Master Plan as a framework for future activities.
According to the recommendations of the National Master Plan all counties have created County Irrigation Plans considering local natural conditions, social and economic background.
This paper is going to present how is that process of integrated water resources management developing in the continental part of Croatia on the example of Osijek County Irrigation Plan located in the Danube river basin.
Nezar Hammouri, Mohammad Al-Qinna, Mohammad Salahat, Jan Adamowski and Shiv O. Prasher
A strategic vision to ensure an adequate, safe and secure drinking water supply presents a challenge, particularly for such a small country as Jordan, faced with a critical supply-demand imbalance and a high risk of water quality deterioration. In order to provide sustainable and equitable long-term water management plans for the future, current and future demands, along with available adaptation options should be assessed through community engagement. An analysis of available water resources, existing demands and use per sector served to assess the nation’s historic water status. Taking into account the effect of both population growth and rainfall reduction, future per sector demands were predicted by linear temporal trend analysis. Water sector vulnerability and adaptation options were assessed by engaging thirty five stakeholders. A set of weighed-criterions were selected, adopted, modified, and then framed into comprehensive guidelines. A quantitative ratio-level approach was used to quantify the magnitude and likelihood of risks and opportunities associated with each proposed adaptation measure using the level of effectiveness and severity status. Prioritization indicated that public awareness and training programs were the most feasible and effective adaptation measures, while building new infrastructure was of low priority. Associated barriers were related to a lack of financial resources, institutional arrangements, and data collection, sharing, availability, consistency and transparency, as well as willingness to adapt. Independent community-based watershed-vulnerability analyses to address water integrity at watershed scale are recommended.
The role of historical fishpond systems during recent flood events
Most of the large pond systems in the Czech Republic were built in 16th century. One of the most important fishpond systems is the one of the Třeboň basin (Třeboň fishpond system - TFS). It is situated in South Bohemia in the upper Lužnice watershed, but the whole system also includes the upper watershed in Austria. The system consists of almost 1000 fishponds with a total area of 7 500 ha. Retention capacity of fishponds is estimated to be as big as 50-70 mil. m3, but might be even 110-140 mil. m3 during extreme floods. The situation is then often beyond control and damage occurs, which deteriorates the fishponds' water management function. The largest is Rožmberk fishpond (480 ha), which stored 50-70 mil. m3 during the 2002 flood while its normal volume is about 5.5 mil. m3.
In order to ensure a satisfactory flood retention capacity of fishpond systems, proper maintenance of their technical equipment is necessary and emergency measures for the whole system should be added.
The island of Korčula is located along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It has Mediterranean climate with mild and wet winters and hot and dry summers. The island's water supply has been managed in two ways: through a pipeline from the mainland and by drawing groundwater. The island's water is mainly used for drinking and for sanitary needs of the population and tourists, and only a small part is used in industrial production. Tourism causes high seasonal water needs which can hardly be met with the existing water supply system. Agriculture has long tradition on the island. Today, 3 500 ha are cultivated which is about 12.7% of island area, while only 20 ha are irrigated. Therefore total agricultural production is variable and mainly depends on climate. Due to more often and stronger droughts, yields are decreased which causes high economical losses. This paper deals with island's natural features, water needs especially for agriculture, water resources management and finally it suggests measures and activities to improve existing water use.
Since 1960`s in Poland a phrase „small retention” has been used although it has been unknown in other countries. “Small retention” means various forms of human activity aiming towards limiting the fast water runoff after snow melting and heavy rains. It is believed that water that has been retained in periods of its excess can supply water courses during summer. It can also be used for agricultural purposes as it increases water availability for crops and improves biodiversity of rural areas. Many different methods of water retention have been defined. Among others, increase of potential retention of surface waters can be achieved by construction of reservoirs or damming on rivers and lakes. Ground water retention capacity can be improved by increasing recharge of aquifers and improvement of soil structure in the aeration zone. Due to the form and way of implementation of small retention measures they can be divided into technical and non-technical measures. In other words, small retention can be defined as a set of measures aiming towards reconstruction of natural retention in the catchment that has been modified or destroyed by human activity. In this paper, it has been stressed that activities and tasks undertaken in Europe in recent years under phrase “increase of natural retention” can be covered by the definition of small retention.
Management of water resources in rural areas: the Polish approach
The Water Framework Directive (WFD), whose basic aim was to create a legal back-ground for water bodies' protection, undoubtedly affects all economic sectors. Being a specific and distinctly different water user, agriculture will have the greatest share in the implementation of WFD out of all sectors of national economy. This results from its special character (60% of the country area used by agriculture), large volume of water consumed by evapotranspiration, diffuse pollution etc. Implementation of WFD will call for undertaking of many activities to restrict an unfavourable im-pact of agriculture on water resources and water related ecosystems. It is assumed that agriculture should also protect water resources. Accomplishment of this task imposes significant changes in the land use of river basins. Water management can be an essential factor deciding about the sustainable development of rural areas and biological diversity of agricultural landscape. Actions undertaken so far to implement the WFD are mainly limited to the protection of water quality from agricultural pol-lution. It is also necessary to undertake implementation of other aims of WFD. This refers especially to the provision of good hydromorphological status of water bodies, protection of water related eco-systems and effective water use.
Polish water resources depend on precipitations, which are variable in time and space. In dry years the water balance is negative in central parts of Poland but sudden thaws and downfalls may result in periodical water excess and dangerous floods almost in the entire country. The retention capacity of artificial reservoirs in Poland permits to store only 6% of the average annual runoff, which is commonly considered insufficient. Another method to increase retention is soil water control. About fifty percent of soils in Poland consist of light and very light sandy soils with low water capacity. Loams and organogenic soils cover approximately 25% and 8.5% area of the country, respectively. Almost half of agricultural lands (48%) have relatively good water conditions, but the rest requires soil water control measures. An increase of the soil water content could be achieved by changes of soil properties, water table control and soil water management. Modernization and reconstruction of drainage and irrigation systems, which were built mainly in the period 1960-1980, is needed.