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perception of young athletes. Sport i Turystyka 16:93-100. Petróczi A. (2007) Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 34(2):1-15. Rushall B. S., M. Jones (2007) Drugs in sport: a cure worse than the disease? Int. J. Sports Sci. Coach. 4:335-361. Sas-Nowosielski K. (2006) The abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids by Polish school-aged adolescents. Biol. Sport 23:225-235. Shaver K. G. (1985) The Attribution of Blame


Introduction. The locus of control and the sense of competence are the psychological resources relevant to the taking-up and continuation of actions in certain situations. They are important regulating factors of the relationships between the man and the environment. It seems that, in such a specific field as martial arts are, these characteristics are useful and their identification and targeted strengthening desirable. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to gather knowledge about the sense of competence and self-control of young people practicing martial arts, as well as the relationship between these variables. Materials and methods. A total of 39 people aged 14-19 years participated in this research. All of them practiced martial arts. They had an average of more than two years training. Data were collected through the (KBPK) Locus of control Questionnaire (by G. and A. Krasowicz Kurzyp-Wojnarski) and the Personal Competence Scale KompOs (by Z. Juczyñski), and a questionnaire designed specifically for this research. Results. Statistical analyses conducted for the study have showed that the respondents represent a transient sense of locus of control, and average levels of personal competence in the field of strength and perseverance. Out of the measured variables, the locus of control in the event of success and a sense of strength were relatively highest. These variables also proved to be interdependent. Analysis also allowed for identification of many other relationships between the variables. Conclusions. Our findings may provide a clue for a possible modification of programs mentally preparing young athletes for martial arts sports. They may also act as suggestions sensitise trainers to specific psychosocial needs of young athletes.

Walrand S Coxam V. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues Ageing Res Rev 2015 21 55 70 Tanner J. Growth at Adolescence . Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford; 1962 Tanner J Growth at Adolescence Blackwell Scientific Publication Oxford 1962 Tenforde AS, Fredericson M. Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: a review of the literature. PM R , 2011; 3: 861-867 Tenforde AS Fredericson M. Influence of sports participation on bone health in the young athlete: a review of the literature PM R 2011 3 861 867 Ubago-Guisado E, Gómez


Basketball is a complex team sport, which combines cyclic and acyclic motion structures consisting mainly of fast and dynamic moves with or without a ball. The puberty is characterized by considerable variability that may occur earlier (developmental acceleration, early maturing) or later (developmental retardation, late maturing): an example can be a 12-year-old girl whom biological age could range from 9.5 to 14.5 years. For this study we selected 6 girls-players from the whole team. Two players were according to the norms from the zone of developmental retardation (BioRet), two players whose decimal and biological age i.e. bone age was identical (DC = BV), and the other two were in the biological acceleration zone (BioAkc.). All players were 13-years old and competed in the U14 category. We have confirmed that there are great differences in biological age in a group of 13-years old girls – in our research it has shown almost four years difference. We did not confirm the author's conclusions that biologically accelerated individuals achieved better results than the retarded ones in the speed and strength tests.


The aim of the study was to assess changes in endurance performance in young runners (females and males) during two training seasons. It involved 19 male and 16 female athletes aged 15-17 specializing in track-and-field middle and long distances runs. The following parameters were measured three times during the training season: maximal oxygen uptake, running economy, and the level of the second ventilatory threshold. Training volume and intensity during each season were analyzed within an 8-week period prior to the exercise tests. The volume and intensity of training at various stages of preparation in both seasons were similar. During the first year of observation, significant improvements in relative volume of maximal oxygen uptake were reported both in female and male athletes. During the second training season, it was found that running economy improved both in women and men, with no changes in maximal oxygen uptake. The same (in terms of volume and intensity) endurance training carried out with young runners during two consecutive training seasons can result in different training effects.


AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the infl uence of systematic training in physical growth and biological maturity in prepubertal males and estimate how this affects the physical growth and skeletal maturity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 177 primary school students of the fifth and sixth grade, from schools in Alexandroupolis, participated voluntarily in our study. Questionnaires were used in order to measure physical activity levels. The subjects were subdivided into two groups; control group (prepubertal, whose physical activity was the physical education of their school and which had never participated in systematic training, n = 95) and experimental group (prepubertal, whose weekly physical activity included physical education in their schools and additionally 3-4 training units organized training in various sports clubs in the city, n = 82). The following parameters were recorded: biological age measured by determination of skeletal age; bone density measured by ultrasound methods; anthropometric and morphological features such as height, body composition, selected diameters, circumferences and skinfolds; motor ability features. RESULTS: The experimental group exhibited older biological age (p = 0.033), higher bone density (p < 0.001), lower BMI and body fat (p < 0.001), better anthropometric features and higher performance throughout all motor ability tests (p < 0.05), compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that systematic physical activity has a positive effect on both the physical and biological maturity of pre-pubertal children. This effect is mainly expressed in bone strengthening as a result of the increased bone density and in improvement of the kinetic skills of pupils who participated in organized extracurricular sport-activities.


An os subtibiale is a rare accessory bone located below or behind the medial malleolus. Herein we present a rare case of a painful os subtibiale in a young triathlete who presented with pain, redness and swelling below his left medial malleolus. Plain radiographs and three-dimensional computed tomography revealed a well-defined oval bone distal to the left medial malleolus. After conservative treatment failed, the ossicle was excised in an open surgery with complete resolution of symptoms. This case report emphasizes the need for clinical awareness of different anatomical variations of the bones of the foot.

tolerance and a rise in sensitivity thresholds can also be observed (so‐called ‘exercise‐induced hypoalgesia’; Koltyn, 2002 ). Training that is too intense or carried out improperly or the use of incorrect techniques can lead to unphysiological strains and cancel out any positive effects on the perception of pain. In this case, pain can be an early indicator of a strain, as well as a result of or a predictor for tissue damage, micro‐trauma, and consecutive injuries ( Oliveira et al., 2017 ). The prevalence of pain among young athletes requires particular attention

-item measures for marketing and consumer behavior research. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.doi:10.4135/9781412996761 Buckworth, J., Lee, R.E., Regan, G., Schneider, L.K., ---amp--- DiClemente, C.C. (2007). Decomposing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for exercise: Application to stages of motivational readiness. Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 8 (4), 441-461. Caglar, E., Canlan, Y., ---amp--- Demir, M. (2009). Recreational exercise motives of adolescents and young adults. Journal of Human Kinetics , 22 , 83-89. Carpenter, P.J. (1992). Staying in sport: Young athletes

, separately for men and women. The Alpha level was set at 0.05 ( Judd et al., 2014 ). Results The study results of 222 young athletes were analysed considering two categories: the self-image and image of the world versus pre-competitive anxiety and coping strategies. Table 1 presents correlations between the self-image, the image of the world, the level of somatic and cognitive anxiety (worrying and attention disruption), and sex. The analyses of moderation showed a few statistically significant relations. It was observed that among girls the level of somatic anxiety