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über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – CRPD) . Geneva: United Nations. Veldman, Karin, Sijmen A. Reijneveld, Josue Almansa Ortiz, Frank C. Verhulst, and Ute Bültmann. 2015. Mental Health Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood Affect the Educational and Employment Status of Young Adults: Results From the TRAILS Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 69(6): 588–593. WHO. 1992. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic


Introduction. Body modifications are practices leading to transient or permanent change of various parts of human body. The most popular forms of body modifications are tattooing and piercing.

Aim. The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of the most popular body modifications (tattoos and piercing) among young adults aged 18-32 years and to collect and analyze their opinions concerning body modifications and to determine their knowledge about the complications during these procedures.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in February 2017 among 251 individuals: 146 females (58.17%) and 105 males (41.83%). An original questionnaire was used. It consisted of questions about body modifications. Researchers recorded body modifications the respondents have had. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous. Participants were randomly selected. Results were analyzed with STATISTICA 12.5 and ANOVA program; p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results. The number of 23 examined individuals (10 men and 13 women) had tattoos (9.16%). The mean number of tattoos was 1.6±0.6 for women and 2±1.1 for men. As many as 128 individuals had ear piercing (51%), including 6 males and 122 females. The number of 13 people (5.18%) had piercing in places other than ears. Piercing is significantly more common than tattooing. As many as 109 individuals (43.43%) did not have tattoos or body piercing. The total number of 106 respondents (42.23%) liked tattoos, ear piercing 168 (66.93%), piercing of other parts of the body 41 (16.33%), and other body modifications 8 (3.19%) individuals. As many as 221 (88.05%) individuals claimed that they knew the complications of body modifications.

Conclusions. Body modifications are popular among young adults, especially among females. The most positively assessed by respondents were earnings and tattoos, what correlates with their occurrence in this group of people. The vast majority of respondents consider that they know the complications of body modifications.

References 1. Chaturvedi AK, Engels EA, Anderson WF, Gillison ML. Incidence trends for human papillomavirus-related and -unrelated oral squamous cell carcinomas in the United States. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 612-9. 2. Golas SM. Trends in palatine tonsillar cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007; 35: 98-108. 3. Myers JN, Elkins T, Roberts D, Byers RM. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in young adults: increasing incidence and factors that predict treatment outcomes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000; 122

. Ventilatory Function in Young Adults and Dietary Antioxidant Intake. Nutrients 7:2879-96. Mannino DM, Buist AS. 2007. Global burden of COPD: Risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet 370:765-73. Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Brusasco V, Crapo O, Burgos F, Casaburi R. et al. 2005. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests. Eur Respir J 26:948-68. Prentice A. 2004. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of osteoporosis Public Health Nutrition 7(1A):227-43. Shaheen SO, Jameson KA, Syddall HE, Aihie-Sayer A, Dennison EM, Cooper C. et al. 2010. Hertfordshire Cohort Study


It is really difficult to live in a society in which the human contact is decreasing each day, and where stressful situations become unavoidable. In order to be healthy and have a healthy lifestyle, the coping style plays a huge role.

Witnessing this situation every day, the aim of this research is to investigate the connection among psychosomatic tendencies, different coping styles and locus of control in young adults, aged from 24 to 34 years, in the Republic of North Macedonia.

The evaluated sample consists of 187 (M=47; F=140) participants, randomly selected, who accepted to be the part of the research by filling in the on-line questionnaires, delivered through Google forms. The short demographic questionnaire and three psychological instruments were used: Cybernetic Battery of Conjunctive tests KON-6, CISS-21 (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (I-E).

Spearman’s correlation was used in order to check and approve the connectedness among psychosomatic tendencies, coping styles and locus of control.

The obtained results confirm that there is a significant correlation among tendencies towards psychosomatic reaction, coping styles and locus of control among young adults in the Republic of North Macedonia.

Hip and Knee Kinematics in Sagittal Plane during Stair Ascent and Descent in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults

Ascending and descending stairs is a frequent activity in every-day living. Available data usually describe the ascent and descent pattern of young healthy adults, or elderly people.

In order to assess the problems of peadiatric patients during stair ascent and descent, and to evaluate how treatment changes this pattern, a normative data base is needed. This data is lacking in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was to collect the kinematic data of healthy children, adolescents and young adults during stair locomotion and to assess the changes in range of movement in hip and knee joints in the sagittal plane. Twenty-seven healthy subjects, aged 6 to 21 years old, participated in the study. The subjects were climbing stairs with dimensions comparable to steps in public building.

The data were collected using optoelectronic motion system VICON 460. Helen Hayes marker set and Plug-In-Gait model were used. The data were further processed using Polygon and Matlab softwares. The subjects were divided into 6 subgroups, according to their body stature.

Hip and knee kinematics in sagittal plane during stair ascent and descent are reported for all 6 subgroups.

The main factor determining the dynamic range of movement in the hip and knee joints during stair locomotion is the body stature / step height ratio. The present paper presents detailed data, which could be used as reference data for assessment of stair locomotion of paediatric patients.


The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the associations between various anthropometric adiposity screening indices and body fat percentage estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 186 (95 male and 91 female) normal weight (body mass index [BMI] = 18.5- 24.9 kg/m2) young adults (mean age= 20.96 ± 2.03 years) were measured on body fat percentage, body height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Abdominal volume index, body adiposity index, BMI, body roundness index, conicity index, reciprocal ponderal index, waist to height ratio, waist to height 0.5 ratio, and waist to hip ratio were calculated accordingly. Results revealed significant gender effects in all main anthropometric measurements. Except for waist to hip ratio, results indicated significant associations between anthropometric indices and BIA in both male and female participants. BIA results were found to be largely associated with BMI and abdominal volume index in both genders. Bland- Altman analysis showed good agreements between these indices and BIA. Considerable associations and agreements highlight the potential importance and the use of several anthropometric proxies to estimate body adiposity among male and female non-overweight/obese young adults. Despite continuing discussion regarding its accuracy, BMI seems to be useful for monitoring body adiposity within this cohort.

adiposity and its association with hypertension in serial groups of young adult university students in urban Cameroon: a time – series study. BMC Public Health 217(499):1–6. Chua EY, Zalilah MS, Haemamalar K, Norhasmah S, Geeta A. 2017. Obesity indices predict hypertension among indigenous adults in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. J Health Popul Nutr 36(24):1–7. Czarnecka D, Bilo G. 2005. Pacjent z ciśnieniem wysokim prawidłowym – czy wymaga leczenia?. Choroby Serca i Naczyń 2(4):187–89. Diaz K M, Booth III JN, Seals SR, Abdalla M, Dubbert M, Sims M et al

Young Adults’ Assessment of Parent-Child-Relations. Journal of Marriage and the Family 56(4): 908-922. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen. 2000. Emerging Adulthood: A Theory of Development from the Late Teens Through the Twenties. American Psychologist 55(5): 469-480. Attias-Donfut, Claudine. 1995. Les solidarités entre générations. Vieillesse, famille, Etat. Paris: Nathan. Baykara-Krumme, Helen, Daniela Klaus, and Anja Steinbach. 2011. Generationenbeziehungen in Deutschland. Ein Vergleich der Beziehungsqualität in einheimischen deutschen Familien, Familien mit türkischem

References Mirković D, Majkić-Singh N, Ignjatović S. Homocistein: hemija, metabolizam i uloga u patofiziološkim procesima. Jugoslov Med Biohem 2003; 22: 127-40. Herrmann W. Significance of hyperhomocysteinemia. Clin Lab Med 2006; 52: 367-74. Kluijtmans LAJ, Young IS, Boreham CA, Murray L, McMaster D, McNulty H, Strain JJ, et al. Genetic and nutritional factors contributing to hyperhomocysteinemia in young adults. Blood 2003; 101 (7): 2483-8. Bathum L, Petersen I, Christiansen L, Konieczna A, Sörensen TIA, Kyvik KO. Genetic and enviromental influences on