Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.
The Effect of a Protein-Xanthophyll Concentrate from Alfalfa (Phytobiotic) on Animal Production - A Current Review
One of the supplements that can replace antibiotic growth promoters is a protein xanthophyll extract from the leaves of alfalfa. Green matter of alfalfa contains 17-22% of total protein, rich in non-essential (exogenous) amino acids, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids. The crude fibre content in green matter of alfalfa is relatively high (about 23.0-30.0% dry weight). However, protein-xanthophyll extract (EFL) contains about 1-2% of crude fibre. Like the whole plants of alfalfa, the protein-xanthophyll extract contains secondary metabolites such as plant phytoestrogens (isoflavones and coumestrol) and antinutritional components (phytates, L-canavanine and saponins). Protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX) as a natural feed supplement has a positive effect on animal organisms. When supplemented to animals, this extract enhanced production results, increased feed efficiency, and improved the quality of meat, milk and eggs. Also, PX reduced methane emissions and soil pollution with nitrogen compounds when used in animal nutrition. The aim of this review was to gather the current literature describing the effects of using protein-xanthophyll extract in animal nutrition.