The price of firewood has increased substantially in the last couple of years due to the high volume of export. The branches and smaller diameter pieces are considered leftovers and are not exportable, however they are suitable as firewood. Chainsaws are used to cut the larger diameter wood, but this way is not efficient for cutting up branches and smaller diameter wood pieces. In this paper we present the structure, working principle and the 3D model of a machine that can be used to chop smaller diameter wood branches in a simple and efficient way.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of disturbance degree on the species richness and species diversity of oak forests in the Kurdistan Province (Iran). The study ran on three treatments: undisturbed, moderately disturbed, and highly disturbed. For each treatment, there were selected three forest patches with similar physiographic conditions and on each patch there were specified three 400 m2 plots for recording floristic data. The species’ name and the abundance of herbaceous species were recorded on 5 micro plots sized 1.5 × 1.5 m for each sample. Menhinick, Margalef, the number of species indices and also rarefaction, jackknife methods and species abundance distribution models were used to estimate the herbaceous species richness for the three treatments. The results showed that all the richness indices had the highest values for the undisturbed forests and the lowest values for the highly disturbed ones. Based on all models, undisturbed forests were showed more diverse than highly disturbed area. Generally the negative impact of human activities (wood cutting and grazing) on the herbaceous species richness was found much stronger in the highly disturbed forests and in moderately disturbed forests compared the undisturbed ones. With increasing destruction intensity, the herbaceous species richness in the oak forests decreased dramatically.
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