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’s Human Rights’, Human Rights Quarterly , XXI(4): 853–90. • Friedman Elizabeth, 1995, ‘Women’s Human Rights: The Emergence of a Movement’, in Peters Julie and Wolper Andrea (eds), Women’s Rights Human Rights: International Feminist Perspectives , Routledge, New York and London, 18-35. • Froide Amy M., 2005, Never Married: Singlewomen in Early Modern England , Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York. • Garner John, 1969, The Franchise and Politics in British North America, 1755-1867 , University of Toronto Press, Toronto. • Green Joyce A. (Joyce Audry), 2007

. 23 August 2015, <http://www.ferdi.fr/sites/www.ferdi.fr/files/publication/fichiers/wp116_maurel_mallakh_speciale_web.pdf>. El-Sisi wins Egypt’s presidential race with 96.91%. Ahramonline (June, 2014). Web. 13 August 2015, <http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/102841/Egypt/Politics-/BREAKING-PEC-officially-announces-AbdelFattah-ElSi.aspx>. Faiqa, M., Women’s Rights in Post Revolutionary Egypt:A Step Forward or Back?, Ibn Khaldun Center for Development Studies (February, 2013). Web 14 August 2015, <http://www.ibnkhalduncenter.org/docs/Women’s_Rights

Bonifacio Glenda Tibe (ed), Feminism and Migration: cross-cultural engagements , Springer, London • MacLaren Sherrill, 1991, Invisible Power: Behind the Scenes with Canadian Women of Influence , Seal Books, Toronto. • McIvor Sharon, 2004, ‘Aboriginal Women Unmasked: Using Equality Litigation to Advance Women’s Rights’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law , XVI: 106 • Monture-Okanee Patricia A., 1992, ‘The Roles and Responsibilities of Aboriginal Women: Reclaiming Justice’, Saskatchewan Law Review , LVI(2): 237-266. • Native Women’s Association of Canada, Section 1

Abstract

The aim of our study is to show the development of women's rowing and competition, as well as the reasons for its slow spread, taking into account the so called decisive era, the social environment, which, although in various ways, has greatly influenced it all over the world. One of the major research methods for collecting data was document analysis: we used the volumes of Gusztáv Götz's legacy1found in the sports history collection of the Hungarian Rowing Federation, whose spirit we also tried to preserve. In these volumes we found and analysed congressional reports, resolutions made by the national rowing federations, professional articles on rowing and papers on sports medicine. In addition, we studied the relevant literature, namely, studies dealing with the era from sociological, sports sociological and sports historical perspectives. Moreover, via membership in the Traditionalist Committee of the Hungarian Rowing Federation we had the opportunity to meet the great Hungarian female rowing champions of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and we prepared structured in-depth interviews with them. Meeting most often with Anna Domonkos1, Ágnes Bán1, Zsuzsanna Rakitay1. The results show that the international rowing society was divided, the social and medical discourse differed from each other in the assessment of women's sports, sports historical traditions varied country by country and international sports politics also played a decisive role in the delay. With the results, our paper is intended to give a more thorough picture of the reasons why women's competition in rowing has expanded so slowly than the previous analyses did.

Abstract

This paper comparatively examines steps taken to further gender equality and end discrimination against women by Japan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC) between 1995 and 2010. The theoretical framework is set by the Beijing Platform for Action, adopted at the United Nations “Fourth World Conference on Women” in 1995, which sought to encompass the full scope of discrimination against women in twelve critical areas of concern. Although universally agreed upon, the platform is not legally binding, which limits its applicability and impact in practice. The results of this analysis show that both states pursued a very similar approach in the implementation of the platform: they developed ambitious national plans and revised domestic laws while failing to address the root causes for gender-based discrimination. Both seem to have understood the document as a non-exhaustive list of suggested priority areas and have addressed important issues insufficiently or not at all. There is a lack of political will, which seems to partially result from cultural stereotypes common to both states. As a result, most women in the PRC and Japan have not benefitted from the selective measures taken in the framework of the platform’s national implementation and continue to face discrimination.

Abstract

Siri marriage, known in various terms such as under hand marriage and undocumented marriage, is a marriage based on religious rules or customs and is not recorded in the Office of Religious Affairs for Muslims or the Office of Civil Registry for non-Muslims. Factors influencing the occurrence of siri marriage are; economy, social, culture, education, and religious beliefs in the legality of siri marriage. The legal consequences of not doing registration of marriages would harm spouses or those who are married even though the marriage is performed in accordance with religion and beliefs because it is considered invalid if it has not been recorded by the Office of Religious Affairs or the Office of Civil Registry. Furthermore, children who are born in an undocumented marriage are considered illegitimate and also only have a civil relationship with mother or mother’s family (Article 42 and 43 of the Act on Marriage).

References Bock, Gisela. Women in European History. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Press, 2002. van Drenth, Annemieke and Francisca de Haan. The Rise of Caring Power: Elizabeth Fry and Josephine Butler . Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999. de Gouges, Olympe. Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen . Web. 3 May 2012 <http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/book-sum/gouges.html> Sklar , Kathryn Kish. Women’s Rights Emerges within the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1830-1870: a Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 2000.

Abstract

In this article I propose a thesis that women’s rights are not something that when once gained remains forever. Women’s rights require a continuous struggle, a fight that is fought still anew. An example of this thesis is the nationwide women’s strike in Poland called Black Protests. It was held to protest against the government policy that disfavours women, in particular, against the attempts to tighten abortion laws. My aim is to analyse the nature of Black Protests and to reflect on their significance for women’s subjectivity.

Abstract

Pinter’s short dramatic piece questions the women’s rights discourse that USA-led Western hegemonic powers rely heavily upon when justifying their incursions into the territories of the Global South. The play blasts this posture apart by pointing to the patriarchal paradigm and gendered hierarchies that inform the structuration of Western capitalist societies and which neo-imperial Western powers in their search for bigger profits and new markets inevitably transplant into annexed territories under their direct or indirect control.

Abstract

While women’s rights activists and advocates fight for equality in the professions, the state of women in academic research is not very impressive. Fewer women are actively undertaking major doctoral studies and research. Although the number increases at a very low rate, women’s participation, specifically in science, technology, engineering, and information technology research at academic levels or for doctoral purposes, is minimal. In this situation, many acclaimed authors have reasoned that womanhood itself and gender-specific attributions cause low participation in academia. A few have referred to motherhood as well. At this juncture, this literature review explores whether environmental support and facilitation are more responsible for this situation than gender attributes are by approaching the topic from the viewpoint of the extent of environmental support for women researchers.