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transportation of wind power plants blades . Logistyka, 3, 2102-2108, Macko, M., Flizikowski, J., Szczepanski, Z., Tyszczuk, K., Śmigielski, G., Mrozinski, A., Czerniak, J., Tomporowski, A., 2017. CAD/CAE Applications in Mill's Design and Investigation . Proceedings of 13th International Scientific Conference: Computer Aided Engineering, Wrocław, Poland; 22-24 June 2017. Springer International Publishing, 343-351. Tomporowski, A., Piasecka, I., Flizikowski, J., Kasner, R., Kruszelnicka, W., Mroziński, A., Bieliński, K., 2018. Comparison analysis of blade life cycles of land


In recent years, the offshore wind power industry has been growing dynamically. A key element which decides upon power output of a wind power plant is blades. They are most frequently produced from polymers – laminates with epoxy resins and fiberglass. In the near future, when the blade life cycles are over, large amounts of waste material of this type will have to be reused. This paper presents a comparison analysis of the impact of particular material existence cycle stages of land-based and offshore wind power plant blades on the environment. Two wind power plant blades, of about 49 m in length each, were examined using the LCA method, the programme SimaPro, and Ekowskaźnik 99 modelling (phase LCIA).


Power stations in marine locations cause multi-faceted impact on the environment, man and the economy. There are not many studies devoted to modeling energy benefits for CO2 emissions. The paper presents the issues of assessing the efficiency of offshore wind farms, defined as the ratio of benefits to life cycle inputs. The scientific goal was to develop a mathematical model for efficiency in the design, manufacture, use and management of offshore wind power. The papers practical purpose is the experimental designation of the impact of selected post-use management methods, time of use and maritime location, i.e. average annual productivity of wind power plants on the efficiency of energy benefits from greenhouse gas emissions. The mathematical model of the integrated cost-benefit ratio has been developed for energy use assessment, taking into account the benefits generated by electricity production and the life-cycle CO2 emissions based on the LCA analysis using the CML method. Mathematical model validation was performed by determining the value of the indicator for an existing 2 MW offshore wind farm and comparatively for fossil fuel production: lignite, stone, fuel oil and natural gas. Analytical and research work carried out showed that the higher the efficiency index, the higher the value of the indicator. It has been shown that the location of the power station at sea produces more favorable CO2 elimination rates, due to higher productivity compared to in-land wind power plants. A more favorable form of post-consumer management for CO2 has been determined as recycling. It was found that for electricity generated from offshore wind farms, the value of the energy efficiency benefit from CO2 emissions is higher than for fossil fuel energy production.


Many countries worldwide support green energy production on large scale mostly by solar or wind energy subsidizing manufacture and operation of such systems. During the last two decades, there has been significant increase in wind energy production globally. Statistics show continuously growing investments in the development and installation of wind turbines and farms. Currently, wind energy is the second most important source of renewable energy after water energy. By 2016 global cumulative installed wind capacity surpassed 432 k MW [GWEC]. In last several years, most dynamic growth in wind power generation investments was recorded in Asia. Europe, in comparison, has less impressive but steady growth in wind power plants through the years. In this article, authors present global demand on energy in comparison to efficiency of wind power plants in relation to the local and global location as well as to the scale of installed system. Authors also present statistical data concerning wind power plants development. General classification, using number of criteria (ex. power output, construction size, rotor axis orientation and other) of wind to electric power converting devices is presented. Various types of devices, which authors describe in this article, can perform conversion of wind blow energy to the electric energy using different yet similar methods.


The paper presents a selected aspect of the determining the initial soil shear modulus value on the research example in resonant column – torsional shear apparatus (RC / TS). There are presented the significance of the initial value of shear modulus in design of offshore wind power plant foundations and the importance of its variability in the function of cyclical shear strains of soil related to the impact of sea and atmosphere on the designed structures. Based on the conducted analyses, a new methodology for interpreting the TS test results of soil has been proposed. It allows estimating the values of the shear modulus in the full range of shear strains occurring in issues closely related to the design and construction work of offshore wind power plant foundations.

Problems in Assessment of Wind Energy Potential and Acoustic Noise Distribution when Designing Wind Power Plants

Interest in the use of renewable energy in Latvia is increasing every year. Government support and availability of large unpopulated areas on the coast makes the use of these lands for the placement of large wind power plants (WPP) attractive. The key factors that determine the choice of the location of WPP are reliable information about distribution of the resource of wind energy in this area and the influence of wind turbines on the environment. The paper presents the results of years-long observations on the density fluctuations of wind energy at heights of 10 to 60 m in the area in the Baltic Sea coast in Ventspils and Ainaži. The velocity observations since 2007 have been gathered by measurements complex of the LOGGER 9200 Symphonie type. The results are presented in the form of tables, bar charts and graphs. Extrapolation results of wind velocity and density mean values on heights up to 150 m for the two areas with different terrain types were shown. The distribution of acoustic noise in the vicinity of the WPP was studied and an assessment of its impact on the environment in accordance with the Latvian government requirements was conducted.

renewable energy sources . [Online]. Available at . 10. Zailskaite, D. (2017). Do we have enough wind power plants? [Online]. Available at . 11. National Control Commission for Energy and Prices. (2018). Renewable energy . [Online]. Available at . 12. Lithuanian Environmental Investment Fund. (2016). Support to business . [Online]. Available at http


There has been a big increase in production and investments in wind turbines and wind farms in last 20 years. New generation of wind turbines is more reliable than from 1980’s are, which necessary condition is energy production is to play an important role among renewable energy sources. Over the last 30 years, the size of wind turbines increased 7 times, as nominal power increased nearly 14 times. At present, turbines capable of producing over 10 MW of power are being developed. The main reason for continued growth of turbines sizes is to minimize the energy cost per kilowatt-hour. However, it is worth remembering that according to the „square-cube law”, there is a maximum size after the surpassing of witch the cost of ever-larger turbines would grow faster than financial gain from the increased size. In this article, authors present energy storage methods and devices for wind power plants and cost-effectiveness of the individual energy storage methods. Authors also present data about energy storage efficiency and groups of energy storage devices for wind power plants such as: compressed-air power stations + gas turbine (CAES), utilizing underground wells, pumped storage power plants, rechargeable batteries (lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium sulphur, VRB, zinc-flow, zinc-air, zinc-air), flywheels, hydrogen production and storage systems, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), electrostatic storage – electrolytic capacitors.

Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System

The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.


The development of renewable energy technologies (RET) depends on a wide range of criteria and regulations. To evaluate which RET (solar photovoltaic (PV), wind power plants (WPP), hydroelectric power plants (HPP) or bio-energy plants) have the greatest potential in Latvia, the most suitable approach is a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). The proposed MCDM methodology involves TOPSIS model based on information entropy, which contributes as a criteria weighting tool. The study investigates seven main criteria from technical, economic, environmental and social aspects. Firstly, each alternative country is analysed due to the chosen RET criteria. Secondly, the assessment is extended, comparing specific data with Latvia’s MCDM of RET results. The research results show that, according to the best available examples of RET, hydro energy plants still play a substantial role for Latvia, the most promising RET development is based on bio-energy and wind renewable energies.