,Larissa, WYK, L. V.Graham, J, 2011. A. Beginners guide to wild Edible plant in the Grinnell Area.Grinnell College.
Berihun, T and Molla, E. 2017. Study on the Diversity and Use of Wild Edible Plants in Bullen District Northwest Ethiopia. Hindawi, Journal of Botany. V, 2017. 1-10.
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Vladica Čudić, Dragoslava Stojiljković and Aleksandar Jovović
wildplants growing on contaminated soils. Ind Crop Prod 2006;24:230-37. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2006.06.013
6. Moors HME, DijkemaPJG. Embedded industrial production systems: Lessons from waste management in zinc production. Technol Forecast Soc 2006;73:250-65.doi: 10.1016/j. techfore.2004.03.006
7. Bozkurt S. Assessment of the Long-Term Transport Processes and Chemical Evolution in Waste Deposits. [PhD thesis]. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology; 2000.
8. Bolan N, Kunhikrishnanc A, Thangarajana R, Kumpiened J
Archaeological fieldwork carried out at the Tell Arbid site in north-eastern Syria exposed settlement remains dating from the early 3rd millennium BC to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Recent excavations in Sector P, on the eastern slope of the site, revealed the existence of a significant occupation of the Post-Akkadian/ Early Jazirah V period and of levels dated to the Early and Classic Khabur Ware/Old Jazirah/Middle Bronze Age I-II periods. Cereal remains were dominated by grains and ear fragments of hulled two-rowed barley Hordeum distichon. Less numerous were wheats represented by emmer Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum, and macaroni wheat T. durum. The presence of bread wheat T. aestivum and six-rowed barley Hordeum vulgare could not be excluded. The two periods contained similar sets of cereals, but in the Post-Akkadian Period the percentage of hulled wheat remains was higher, while in the Middle Bronze Age (particularly in its younger phase) naked wheat slightly exceeded hulled wheats. Legumes were represented by only very few seeds of lentil Lens culinaris and bitter vetch Vicia ervilia. Diaspores of wild plants were very abundant, particularly those from the families of grasses and legumes. The considerable number of ear and culm fragments probably belonging to cereals as well as numerous seeds/fruits of wild plants suggests that the plant remains originated from fodder or animal dung or belonged to threshing waste. The presence of grass stems with nodes indicated that cereals were reaped low on the straw; occasional use of uprooting was suggested by the occurrence of basal culm fragments with traces of rootlets.
Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds is an aromatic plant used for its medicinal values. This study aims to select appropriate conditions for in vitro propagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds and to evaluate yield and antioxidants activity of its essential oils (EOs).
The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Gibberellin (GA3).
Hydrodistillated EOs obtained from acclimatized and mother plant, were evaluated for their antioxidant activity. Tests were performed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays.
Shoot induction and multiplication were successfully carried out on MS medium supplemented with the following hormones combinations: 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l GA3 and 0.5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l GA3, respectively. Stem length, nodes and leaves number measured from development vitroplant were 6.89 cm, 5.22 nodes and 11.92 leaves per vitroplant, respectively.
In vitro rooted plants were successfully acclimatized at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C and a long day photoperiod with a total survival rate exceeding 95%.
EO yield of acclimated plant varied between (0.88-1.49 ml/100 g dry matter) compared to wild plant (0.73 ml/100 g dry matter). The antioxidant potential of EOs from acclimated plant showed on DPPH free radical-scavenging, ABTS and CUPRAC assays values of (IC50: 4.18-24.93 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.51-1.56 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.34-2.71 mg/ml), respectively. In contrast, the wild plant exhibited on the same tests the values of (IC50: 10.35 mg/ml), (IC50: 0.12 mg/ml) and (A0.50: 0.99 mg/ml), respectively.
The results suggest that micropropagation of M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds can be an interesting alternative for producing important plant material with the possibility to modulate EO yield and its antioxidant potential for future commercial purposes.
Thangavelu Muthukumar, Eswaranpillai Uma and Perumalsamy Priyadharsini
The algal leaf spot, caused by Cephaleuros virescens Kunze, has been reported in a wide range of plant species from the tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Investigations on the presence of algal infection mostly involved wild plants and plantation crops of economic interest. Nevertheless, limited studies have examined cultivated ornamental plants for the presence of C. virescens. During the summer and monsoon seasons of 2011 we examined ten leaves of five plants belonging to 86 ornamental plant taxa in 38 families growing in home gardens in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India for the algal presence. Nine of the 86 plant taxa were found to host the algae C. virescens. Although majority of the investigated species are considered as typical hosts of C. vi-rescens, its infection was found only in nine plant species. Although the incidence of the algal leaf spot disease was in general low, there was significant variation in the frequency of occurrence of the algal lesions and the lesion size among the investigated plant taxa and seasons. On plants of five species (Alpinia purpurata, Ficus benjamina, Ficus elastica “Variegata”, Michelia champaca, Polyalthia longifolia), C. virescens was found during both seasons, while infections on the remaining four species (Aglaonema commutatum, Dieffenbachia maculata, Eucalyptus globulus, Syngonium podophyllum) were observed only during the monsoon. The susceptibility of different plant species in a genus and varieties of a species varied suggesting the host influence on the development of infections in addition to variation attributed to the local environmental conditions.
Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Iga Karczewska and Krystyna Ciarkowska
The development of the art of garden design has brought about the emergence of naturalistic or ecological gardens. This paper presents a brief historical overview of this period in gardening, and provides examples of contemporary applications. Plants can function as absorbents of metals and therefore there is also the possibility of their practical application in techniques for purifying the environment from metallic contamination. An urgent need to create collections of this unique wild plant material has been stressed. Naturalistic gardens designed in appropriate areas have been proposed as an adequate form of setting up in vivo collections composed of numerous native taxa.
The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside
Most of the ethnobotanical research is dedicated to food and medicinal plants, while the other categories, such as plants used as materials, veterinary remedies or fodder remain neglected. This trend dominates in East Europe where linguistic approach prevails, while ethnographical one stays under-explored, though the heritage of the 19th century was impressive. Field data were collected through in-depth individual semi-structured interviews with the last remaining ethnic Czechs living in Romanian Banat and triangulated with extensive participant observation. The aims of this study were to document and preserve local knowledge pertaining to the use of traditional cultivated and wild plants. The study focused on under-documented use categories, hence, food and medicinal plants were excluded. In total, 56 plant species were cited by informants. The paper also highlights vernacular names, phytonyms, and particularly interesting uses of plant resources or related aspects not described previously or under-reported in the literature. The authors conclude that the ethnobotanical knowledge still survives as a part of the cultural heritage of the Czech diaspora. However, several interesting uses are only practiced by elderly people, the knowledge is ageing, and is likely to vanish fairly soon.
Farhang Rasuli, Javad Nazemi Rafie and Amin Sadeghi
Pollination has an important role in both agricultural production and wild plant reproduction. For the pollination of crops, agriculture relies largely on managed colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Worker bees are primarily affected by pesticides. The symptoms of poisoning vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee and kind of chemical employed. The acute contact toxicity of insecticides (phosalone and pirimicarb), acaricide (propargite), insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin), fungicides and bactericides (copper oxychloride and bordeaux mixture) was assessed in Iran through laboratory experiments. The median lethal concentrations (LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h) were evaluated for the purposes of this research. Results showed that fenpropathrin had high toxicity; LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h were 5.7, 3.2 and 2.9 ppm respectively. Additionally, the bordeaux mixture had the minimum contact toxicity on honeybees with LC50-24h, LC50-48h and LC50-72h being 79,926; 69,552 and 69,045 ppm respectively and was safe and non-toxic in honeybees.
We have pointed out 272 plant and 217 animal, altogether 489 taxa in the diet of Great Bustard on the basis of data received from 9 (10) countries for Otis tarda tarda (Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, former Soviet Union). Out of 272 plant taxa, 40 were classified as cultivated plants, 232 wild plants and weeds. From the latter, 43 taxa were monocotyledons and 189 were dicotyledons. Animal food is shared among Annelida (n = 3), Arthropoda (189) Mollusca (2) and Vertebrata (23) phyla. Arthropods are mostly represented with Insecta (181), Arachnoidea (3), Chilopoda (2), Diplopoda (2) and Crustacea (mostly Isopoda) (1) classes. The component of the diet is possibly not related to selection but to the change of the abundance and availability of food and the ever present demand for animal food needed for the organism. Owing to the high number of taxa known as food, Great Bustard is definitely a generalist species. Due to the wide spectrum of animal taxa and because of the ability to subsidize the inefficient quality of food with quantity, Great Bustards can be regarded as a species with positive adaptation ability. It can be explained with a wide plant and animal food spectrum that Great Bustards even in intensive agricultural habitats can find food with indispensable quantity and quality.