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). Biogas Production Plants as a Method of Utilisation of Sewage Sludge in Relation to the Polish Legislation. Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska. Annual Set The Environment Protection 14, 299–313. 7. Nguyen, T.L.T., Hermansen, J.E. & Nielsen, R.G. (2013). Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives: the case of wheat straw. J. Clean. Product. 53, 138–148. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.04.004. 8. Hardy, T., Musialik-Piotrowska, A., Ciołek, J., Mościcki, K. & Kordylewski, W. (2012). Negative effects

, Satter LD (1975): Wood and woodbased residues in animal feeds. In Turbak AF (ed.): Cellulose technology research. A.C.S. Symposium Series 10. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 75-105. Ben-Ghedalia D, Miron J (1984): The digestibility of wheat straw treated with sulphur dioxide. J Agric Sci Camb 102: 517-520. Ben-Ghedalia D, Yosef E (1994): Effect of isolation procedure on molecular weight distribution of wheat straw lignins. J Agric Food Chem 42: 649-652. Ben-Ghedalia D, Miron J (2001): Digestion by sheep of monosaccharide constituents of direct cut alfalfa

REFERENCES Balat, M. (2007). Global bio-fuel processing and production trends. Energy Explor. Exploit. , 25 , 195–218. Ballesteros, I., Negro, M. J., Oliva, J. M., Cabanas, A., Manzanares, P., Ballesteros, M. (2006). Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated Wheat Straw. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 496 , 129–132. Bhat, M. K., Bhat, S., (1997). Cellulose degrading enzymes and their potential industrial applications. Biotechnol. Adv ., 15 , 583–620. Calinescu, I., Chipurici, P., Trifan, A., Bădoiu, C. (2012). Immobilisation of Saccharomyces


The aim of this study was to assess the effect of straw of two spring wheat cultivars, Tybalt – with the culm filled with pith, and Ostka Smolicka – with the hollow culm, added to light textured soil, on the mineralisation rate of organic matter. The incubation experiment was established under laboratory conditions and comprised three experimental combinations: K1 was soil with an addition of pith-filled culms, K2 – soil with an addition of straw with hollow culms, and K0 – the control with no straw added. In all the combinations, mineral fertilisation was applied in the form of urea. Incubation lasted for 14 months. At specific dates the amounts of CO2 released within 24 h and pH values were recorded. The rate of organic matter mineralisation was expressed in mg CO2·d−1. Analyses showed that the addition of straw, both with pith-filled and hollow culms, significantly influenced the mineralisation of organic matter in the first months of incubation. Mineralisation was most intensive in the soil incubated with straw with hollow culms. The large amount of released carbon dioxide in the first days of incubation caused a decrease in pH both in the control soil and in soils with the addition of straw. The change in the soil reaction to its initial value was recorded at day 222 for the soil combination K0 and at day 250 of incubation in soils fertilised with straw.

Zootech ., 37: 3–11. Titi H.H., Dmour R.O., Abdullah A.Y. (2008). Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs and Shami goat kids fed yeast culture in their finishing diet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. , 142: 33–43. Togtokhbayar N., Cerrillo M.A., Rodríguez G.B., Elghandour M.M.Y., Salem A.Z.M., Urankhaich C., Jigjidpurev S., Odongo N. E., Kholif A.E. (2015). Effect of exogenous xylanase on rumen in vitro gas production and degradability of wheat straw. Anim. Sci. J. , 86: 765–771. Uyeno Y., Shigemori S., Shimosato T. (2015). Effect of probiotics

softwood. In Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology , 2002, Vol. 59, pp. 618-628. SREE, N. K., SRIDHAR, M., SURESH, K., BANAT, I. M., RAO, L. V. High alcohol production by repeated batch fermentation using an immobilized osmotolerant. ZHENG, Y., PAN, Z., ZHANG, R. Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production. In International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering , 2009, Vol. 2, No.3, pp. 51 - 68. KAPARAJU, P. et al. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept. In Bioresource Technology

J.E., Guo C. Tian X.H., Li H.Y., Zhou Y.X. (2014): The effects of three mineral nitrogen sources and zinc on maize and wheat straw decomposition and soil organic carbon. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 13(12): 2768–2777. Prim R.C. (1957): Shortest connection networks and some generalizations. Bell System Technical Journal 36: 1389–1401. Ramsay J.O., Silverman B.W. (2005): Functional Data Analysis. Second Edition, Springer, New York. Ramsay J.O., Wickham H., Graves S., Hooker G. (2014): fda: Functional Data Analysis. R package version 2.4.4. https


Due to the indisputable significance of humus in many biochemical processes as well as its increasing deficit particularly in light soils, alternative sources of substrates for the reproduction of this constituent should be sought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of wheat straw and wheat straw biochar (in four rates) on quantitative and qualitative humus parameters. The following properties were determined in soil: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, humic and fulvic acids, carbon in the extract, non-hydrolysing carbon and spectrophotometric indexes for solution of humic acids including A2/6, A2/4, A4/6. After applying 1% and 2% additions of biochar to the soil, the Corg soil content significantly increased compared to the same doses of thermally unconverted straw. After 254 days of incubation, the addition of biochar to soil at higher doses, decreased the share of humic acid carbon (CHA, CFA) in the Corg content compared to treatments without organic additions and WS treatment. The nonhydrolysing carbon soil content was significantly increased by treatments with 1% and 2% additions of WSB, which indicates greater stabilisation of humus compounds and, at the same time, lower CO2 emission. Soil humic acids amended by treatment with biochar, especially at 1% and 2% doses, were characterised by lower A2/6 and A2/4 ratios. Recognition of changes that may occur in the quantitative and qualitative composition of soil humus after the application of biochar may in the future be helpful information for determining appropriate biochar dose.


The introduction of treated plant fibres into sand concretes leads to a reduction in density, improved ductility and thermal conductivity, and makes sand concrete an environmentally friendly and ecological material. The recovery of waste in this type of material allows the production of new ecological and sustainable materials used either in the new construction or in the rehabilitation of old buildings. In this context, a comparative study was based on the valorisation of marble and ceramic waste as sand in sand concrete made from straw fibres. To carry out this study, we introduced these wastes at substitution rates of 10% and 20%, separated and mixed, and studied the development of the properties of these concretes (density, workability, air content, compressive strength and bending tensile strength) and their behaviour with respect to durability (capillary and immersion absorption and chloride penetration). The study shows that the recovery of this waste as sand in sand concrete based on straw fibres gives satisfactory results. The chemical resistance, thermal conductivity and microstructure are under study, the results of which will be the subject of another publication.


The chaff quality or, more specifically, the distribution of stalk length after straw shredding during wheat harvest with a combined harvester is of significant interest for ploughless tillage practices. The currently applied characterization methods (manual length measurement or the cascade sieve analysis) are time-consuming and labour-intensive. Image analysis-based size characterization has the potential to solve these problems. In this study, two techniques of digital image processing, the well-known method of image moments (rectangular model) and a sub-pixel skeletonization approach (flow lines-tracing), were applied comparatively for stalk length measurement. Upon applying the rectangular model, the analyzed stalks were found to be longer than when the flow lines-tracing algorithm was applied. This was attributed to the unbiased decision criteria of the measuring method. A greater length of the stalk is to be expected in the main stalk than when the length of a twisted or branched stalk is measured from the edge length of a rectangular box that encloses it.