The impacts of summer heat events on the mortality of the Slovak population, both in total and for selected population sub-groups, are the foci of this study. This research is the first of its kind, focusing on a given population, and therefore one priority was to create a knowledge base for the issue and to basically evaluate existing conditions for the heat-mortality relationship in Slovakia. This article also aims to fill a void in current research on these issues in Europe. In addition to overall effects, we focused individually on the major historical heat events which occurred in the summers of 2007, 2010 and 2012. During the heat events, a non-negligible negative response in mortality was recorded and fatal effects were more pronounced during particularly strong heat events and periods which lasted for two or more days. In general, females and the elderly were the most sensitive groups in the population and mortality was characterized by several specific effects in individual population groups. The most extreme heat periods were commonly followed by a deficit in mortality, corresponding to a short-term mortality displacement, the pattern of which varied in specific cases. In general, displaced mortality appeared to compensate for a large part of heat-induced excess deaths.
The article discusses the causes and effects of the plague which is said to have spread over many Polish towns in 1507. The focus is on its possible causes, related to the occurrence of droughts and floods in Central Europe in the late 15th and early 16th century. Available sources from the late mediaeval period have also been analysed for the recorded perceptions of the extreme climatic and weather conditions. Special attention has been paid to the issues of intensity and spatial distribution of the effects of the plague on the example of one district. The analysis covered a variety of issues such as settlement changes, prices of basic goods or even some pollen data. The main results of the study indicate that the climatic extremes at the turn of the 16th century exerted a long-term impact on the society and economy of the region. They also contributed to the abandonment of settlements on rural sites.
Covering a period of 23 years, the Timişoara (in historical Banat region; today SW-Romania) series is the earliest known long-term 18th-century daily measurement (temperature, pressure) and weather observation series (precipitation, sky coverage, meteorological extremes), preserved in the south-eastern lowlands of the Carpathian Basin. Based on data derived from the original weather diary of the royal pharmacist Karl Joseph Klapka, in this paper the early instrumental measurement and daily observation series is presented referring to the temperature, pressure, precipitation conditions, cloudiness, wind, types of precipitation and extreme weather events that occurred in Timişoara in the period of 1780 -1803. The two daily temperature measurement series show very high (over r=0.95) correlations, while pressure series are also in good agreement with other known late 18th-century measurement series of the same period in the Carpathian Basin (Buda, Miskolc and Kežmarok). The Timişoara-series also contains important information concerning such weather extremes as the severe winter of 1784 or the unusual number of summer fog events in 1783 (presumably related to the Icelandic Lakagígar eruption), which are also reported in the present paper.
According to the IPCC it is possible to predict larger weather extremity associated with more frequent occurrence of heat waves. These waves have an impact not only on the health status of the population, on economic, social and environmental spheres, but also on agricultural landscape and production. The paper deals with the issue of climate extremity and addresses mainly the occurrence of characteristic days (tropical, summer, freezing, ice and arctic) and heat waves. The south-eastern Moravia belongs to the warmest regions of the Czech Republic. Since the area is not urban, it is not affected by urban heat islands. Thus, it can be used as a representative area of climate change in terms of weather extremes. Heat wave occurrence and length analysis was performed for the period of 1931–1960 and 1961–2013. In addition, a prospective analysis was carried out for the period of 2021–2100 where the scenario data of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute were used. Between 1961 and 1990, heat waves appeared from June to September. The prediction for the next two decades shows that heat waves may appear as early as May. Furthermore, the average count of days in heat waves increased from 6.13 days (1961–1990) to 36 days (2071–2100). A statistically significant increase in the annual number of tropical days (from 9 to 20 days) was found in the assessment of characteristic days for the period 1961–2013. A highly conspicuous trend was found in July and a prominent trend was identified in May. A statistically highly significant trend was also observed in the annual number of summer days.
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