The irrational use of water in agriculture is often responsible for several problems concerning the depletion of water resources. Water resources sustainability has crucial for the existence of farming system which is dependent on the cropping pattern practices. This paper concerns the studies of existing water resource management and determines factors affecting decision making about water use and management within different farming systems. In these cases, a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM) has been determined that aims at allocating efficient water and land resources to farms in the Ping watershed area in northern Thailand by optimizing a set of important socio-economic objectives which depend on sustainable agricultural (rural) development. The solution was found by using two analytical steps as follows: single objective optimization and compromise programming.
These resources include: land, labour, capital, fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation water. Existing cropping pattern included the inseason rice, off season-rice, vegetables (chili, pak choi, cauliflower, long bean, cabbage), soybean and sweet corn. Under the model cropping pattern conditions the in-season rice was produced for the household consumption and specially found in irrigated areas with storage dam. The model recommended that the suitable cropping pattern of the in-season rice followed by chili and long bean increased the gross margin two times. The amount of water used for the irrigation decreased by 6.84 percent from original 1,198,904 m3 at the existing cropping pattern to 1,116,902 m3 at the model cropping pattern.
However, in the case of the irrigated areas with water gates the model showed that the suitable cropping pattern was not different from the existing ones. However, the recommended model cropping pattern as the suitable cropping pattern consisting of the inseason rice followed by vegetables, sugar cane and perennial crops such as longan increased the gross margin three times while the water use increased only by 2.25 percent from the existing cropping pattern (from 1,374,655 m3 to 1,405,582 m3 at the model cropping pattern).
In the case of the rainfed areas the model cropping pattern recommended to grow the in-season rice, tobacco and longan on farm which increased the gross margin six times. However, the water using increased slightly from the existing on-farm water consumption (101,601.2 m3) up to 680,869 m3 as linked to the model cropping pattern.
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The purpose of this research consists in the elucidation of spatial and economic aspects of the water use in the Prut river basin. The main topics presented in this paper are: 1) the dynamics of water use; 2) spatial and branch profile of water use and its dynamics: 3) existing problems in the evaluation and monitoring of water use; 5) efficiency of the implementation of economic instruments of water management. To achieve these objectives were used traditional methods of geographical and economic research. Also, the content of the present study is focused on the methodology to elaborate the management plans of hydrographical basins and their chapters on the status of water resources and water bodies and on economic analysis of water use in the Prut river basin.
Guţu Claudia Maria, Bălălău D, Ilie Mihaela, Purdel Carmen Nicoleta and Gubandru Miriana
Background: Many studies have been performed in the past few years, to determine arsenic speciation in drinking water, food chain and environment, arsenic being a well-recognized carcinogenic and toxic agent mainly in its inorganic species. The instrumental techniques used for arsenic determination, such as hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), can provide a great sensitivity only on the total amount. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method and to analyze the concentration of total inorganic arsenic in bottled drinking water. Methods: Total arsenic was determined in samples from six different types of commercially available bottled drinking water using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal or hydride generation vaporisation. All drinking water samples were acidified with 0.1M nitric acid to match the acidity of the standards. Results: The method was linear within the studied range (1-5 μg/L, R = 0.9943). The quantification limits for arsenic determination were 0.48 μg/L (HGAAS) and 0.03 μg/L (GFAAS). The evaluated arsenic content in drinking water was within the accepted limits provided by law. Conclusions: A simple and sensitive method for the quantification of arsenic in drinking water using atomic absorbtion spectroscopy was described, which can be further used in toxicological studies. As an additional advantage, the system is very fast, efficient and environmental friendly
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Quality aspects of the surface water used for irrigation in the Neretva Delta (Croatia)
The research was set up in the Neretva River valley in the Southern part of Croatian Karst area, where implementation of modern hydrotechnical practices within the river catchment's area led to intrusion of seawater to groundwater resulting in soil salinization in the delta. The region has great agro-ecological potential for intensive production of vegetables and Mediterranean fruits. Since the combination of the effects of saline groundwater and the use of this water for irrigation may have disastrous effects on the productivity of agricultural soils water, a project was started in order to set up a permanent monitoring network. The aim of this study was to determine the salt dynamics in the surface water on five locations which are considered as potential sources of the irrigation water (Modric canal, Neretva River near Opuzen, Crepina, Jasenska and Vidrice pumping station) during a 4-year period (1999-2002). The surface water samples had been collected on monthly basis and analyzed for all parameters required in the irrigation water quality classification. The results show considerable spatial and temporal variability of determined parameters. Thus, in the Neretva River near Opuzen, total salt concentrations in water ranged from 0.4 to 7.7 dS·m−1, and in Modric from 1.65 up to 17.2 dS·m−1. Dominant cations and anions on all observed locations were Na+ and Cl−. Constantly high concentration of Na+ in sampled surface waters is of a special concern. Utilization of the water of such quality may cause problems related to the use of alkaline waters for irrigation, which can further cause permanent loss of fertile soil.
Barbara Woźniak, Alicja Kłopot, Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Katarzyna Sielska and Jan Żmudzki
13. Hamid H., Eskicioglu C.: Fate of estrogenic hormones in wastewater and sludge treatment: A review of properties and analytical detection techniques in sludge matrix. Water Res 2012, 46, 5813-5833.
14. Henriques M., Cardoso V.V., Rodrigues A.M., Ferreira E., Benoliel M.J., Almeida C.M.M.: Simultaneous determination of ten endocrine hormone disrupters in waterusing SPE/LC- (ESI)MS-MS. J Water Res Protect 2010, 2, 818-829.
15. Hu R., Zhang L., Yang Z.: Picogram determination of estrogens in