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Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh is facing a serious water scarcity problem due to the big gap between demand and supply of water system. When accelerating water scarcities and pollution in and around urban centers are superimposed on issues like continuing urbanization, lack of investment funds for constructing and maintaining water infrastructures, high public debts, inefficient resources allocation processes, inadequate management capacities, poor governance, inappropriate institutional frameworks and inadequate legal and regulatory regimes, water management in the megacities poses a daunting task in the future. To overcome these water related problems, water can be a designing element for structuring future development with the combination of sustainable approaches for social and physical transformation, open up opportunities for water management system. Therefore an integrated approach like integrated water resource management (IWRM) system is required that responds to problems that are all interrelated. Alternate supply and demand management tools such as ground water recharge, rainwater harvesting, effective water pricing, reclaimed water use are suggested to meet the deficit of current supply system through the efficient use of the scarce resources available. Institutional reform and improved water planning are required to facilitate economic growth and social development. Finally, human resource development is identified as key factor for the sustainable effective management of this valuable resource.
Basant Yadav, Sudheer Ch, Shashi Mathur and Jan Adamowski
Fluctuation of groundwater levels around the world is an important theme in hydrological research. Rising water demand, faulty irrigation practices, mismanagement of soil and uncontrolled exploitation of aquifers are some of the reasons why groundwater levels are fluctuating. In order to effectively manage groundwater resources, it is important to have accurate readings and forecasts of groundwater levels. Due to the uncertain and complex nature of groundwater systems, the development of soft computing techniques (data-driven models) in the field of hydrology has significant potential. This study employs two soft computing techniques, namely, extreme learning machine (ELM) and support vector machine (SVM) to forecast groundwater levels at two observation wells located in Canada. A monthly data set of eight years from 2006 to 2014 consisting of both hydrological and meteorological parameters (rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and groundwater level) was used for the comparative study of the models. These variables were used in various combinations for univariate and multivariate analysis of the models. The study demonstrates that the proposed ELM model has better forecasting ability compared to the SVM model for monthly groundwater level forecasting.
Hamzeh Noor, Mahdi Vafakhah, Masoud Taheriyoun and Mahnoosh Moghadasi
TALEBIZADEH M., MORID S., AYYOUBZADEH S.A., GHASEMZADEH M. 2010. Uncertainty analysis in sediment load modeling using ANN and SWAT Model. WaterResourceManagement. Vol. 24 p. 1747-1761.
TEDELA N.H., MCCUTCHEON S.C., RASMUSSEN T.C., HAWKINS R.H., SWANK W.T., CAMPBELL J.L., ADAMS M.B., JACKSON C.R., TOLLNER E.W. 2013. Runoff Curve Numbers for 10 small forested watersheds in the mountains of the Eastern United States. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering. Vol. 17. Iss. 11 p. 1188-1198.
VAFAKHAH M., MOHSENISARAVI M
Gaia Piazzi, Lorenzo Campo, Simone Gabellani, Fabio Castelli, Edoardo Cremonese, Umberto Morra di Cella, Hervé Stevenin and Sara Maria Ratto
The knowledge of snowpack dynamics is of critical importance to several real-time applications especially in mountain basins, such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prevention, hydropower generation. Since simulations are affected by model biases and forcing data uncertainty, an increasing interest focuses on the assimilation of snow-related observations with the purpose of enhancing predictions on snowpack state. The study aims at investigating the effectiveness of snow multivariable data assimilation (DA) at an Alpine site. The system consists of a snow energy-balance model strengthened by a multivariable DA system. An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) scheme allows assimilating ground-based and remotely sensed snow observations in order to improve the model simulations. This research aims to investigate and discuss: (1) the limitations and constraints in implementing a multivariate EnKF scheme in the framework of snow modelling, and (2) its performance in consistently updating the snowpack state. The performance of the multivariable DA is shown for the study case of Torgnon station (Aosta Valley, Italy) in the period June 2012 - December 2013. The results of several experiments are discussed with the aim of analyzing system sensitivity to the DA frequency, the ensemble size, and the impact of assimilating different observations.
Evaporation and evapotranspiration is crucial part of hydrological and water resource management studies e.g. water footprinting. Proper methods for estimating evaporation/potential evapotranspiration using limited climatic data are critical if the availability of climatic data is extremely limited. In a large scale studies are very often used generalized (modelled or gridded) input data. For a large scale water footprint studies is also important to find methods as simple as possible with quantifiable error. In our study, nine simple temperature-based empirical equations were compared with a long term time series of real evaporation data from a 20 m2 tank at Hlasivo station. In the first step, we used real temperature measured at Hlasivo station for validation of equations. In the second step, the gridded temperature data (interpolated datasets) derived from the meteorological stations were used. For both datasets, the differences between observed and predicted values were categorized into three groups of accuracy and the statistical indices of each equation were calculated. Very good results were achieved with the Hamon equation from 1961 and the Oudin equation for both datasets with index of agreement (d) higher than 0.9, cross-correlation coefficient (R2) around 0.7 and root mean square error (RMSE) around 0.5 mm∙(24 h)−1 The Kharrufa equation, which was developed for semi-arid or arid areas, also provides results with sufficient accuracy. Comparison of the results with similar studies showed a lower accuracy of very simple equations against more complex equations, which have RMSE lower than 0.25 mm∙(24 h)−1. But for some kind of studies, quantifiable errors with sufficient accuracy can be more important than the absolute accuracy.
This paper is a general review which basically focuses on the role of geoelectrical surveys in characterizing and deriving the constraints and hydrogeological conditions in semi arid Khanasser valley region and its surroundings in Northern Syria. Schlumberger configuration has been used to carry out ninety six vertical electrical soundings VES, distributed on nine transverse and three longitudinal profiles. Their quantitative 1D interpretations with different techniques yield to develop several alternative approaches, that enable us to derive and determine the hydrological parameters of the structures controlled by the groundwater distributions. Two different northern and southern geological structures separated by Hobs-Serdah water divided line were electrically characterized. Both of them are of very conductive zones of a resistivity less than 4 Ωm, and related to the intrusion of salty water in Quaternary and Paleogene aquifers. The qualitative interpretation of the iso-apparent resistivity maps for different AB/2 spacings has allowed the delineation of those two structures. Those two identified structures have their evident influences on the distributions of thicknesses, resistivity, salinity, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity of both Quaternary and Paleogene aquifers. The high resistivity exceeding 300 Ωm on the measured VES is a very good signal of the presence of basalt formation of upper Miocene age in Jebel Al Hass in the west and Jebel Shbith in the east. The geometry and the electrical characteristics of Quaternary and Paleogene aquifers and the top of Maestrichtian have been well recognized. Quaternary paleosabkhas, fractured zones and tectonic features of the subsurface of Khanasser valley have been delineated through analyzing VES distributions along the executed longitudinal and transverse profiles. Different empirical relationships have been already established through coupling geoelectrical resistivity and hydrochemical data, which allows to derive and establish different salinity maps for different AB/2 spacings, and to outline the boundaries between fresh, brackish and saline waters. Two different alternative approaches have been also developed for geophysically computing and estimating the hydraulic conductivity and the transmissivity of the aquifers in the study region. The different hydrogeophysical approaches developed in this integrated geophysical research project for water resource management have been successfully applied in Khanasser valley, and can be recommended to be practiced in similar worldwide areas.
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SALVATI L., PETITTA M., CECCARELLI T., PERINI L., BATTISTA F., VENEZIAN SCARSCIA M.E. 2008. Italy’s renewable water resources as
Nezar Hammouri, Mohammad Al-Qinna, Mohammad Salahat, Jan Adamowski and Shiv O. Prasher
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K olinjivadi V., A damowski J., K osoy N. 2014. Recasting payments for ecosystem services (PES) in waterresourcemanagement: A novel institutional approach. Ecosystem