Advantages and risk related with carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) application for water remediation. Mini review
Water is one of the most valuable substances in the world and its availability in the form of potable and drinking water is of great importance for any society. Conventional water treatment methods have been reported to be ineffective in removing some kinds of organic pollutants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), personal care products (PCP), pharmaceuticals, etc. Nanotechnology - especially application of the carbon based nanomaterials (CNMs) to water decontamination - is promising technology. The physico-chemical properties of CNMs (e.g. high surface area to volume ratio, high equilibrium rate) make them an excellent adsorbent which can be effectively used to remove pollutants from water. The present mini-review provides an overview of the research progress about organic chemical adsorption on CNMs in relation to water decontamination. The paper also discussed the possible risk related with desorption pharmaceuticals from CNMs.
Studies on the currently used organophosphorus insecticides with respect to their environmental levels and effective remediation technologies for their residues in water have been considered as a source of major concern. This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organophosphorus in drinking water plants (Kafr-El-Shiekh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem and Metobess) in Kafr-El-Shiekh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, it was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different remediation technologies (advanced oxidation processes and bioremediation) for removing chlorpyrifos in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organophosphorus pesticides in water sampling sites. Chlorpyrifos was detected with high frequency relative to other compounds in drinking water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent (Fe2O3(nano)/H2O2/UV) was the most effective treatment for chlorpyrifos removal in drinking water followed by ZnO(nano)/H2O2/UV, Fe3+/H2O2/UV and ZnO/H2O2/ UV, respectively. Bioremediation of chlorpyrifos by effective microorganisms (EMs) removed 100% of the chlorpyrifos initial concentration after 23 days of treatment. There is no remaining toxicity in chlorpyrifos contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats with respect to cholinesterase activity and histological changes in kidney and liver relative to control. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation with effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for chlorpyrifos in drinking water.
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Three different types of Fe(II)-modified natural zeolites were tested as supports in continuous-flow columns for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water. The natural zeolites chosen as support were commercially available Zeosand (80% clinoptilolite), ATZ (79% phillipsite/chabazite), and ZS-55RW (90% Chabazite). All the examined modified zeolites turned out active for hexavalent chromium abatement, lowering its concentration below the European regulation level, even at relatively high flow rates (40 mL/h, linear velocity 15 cm/h). Zeosand, having a broader pH range of stability, was found to be the best one in terms of both Fe(II) uptake (0.54 wt%) and Cr removal (90 mg Cr/Kg zeolite).
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