This article presents an analysis of cartographic materials of the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of changes in the surface water network of the Gardno-Łeba Lowland. The obtained results confirmed that the natural water network was slightly transformed in the first half of the 19th century and considerably increased in the 20th century as a result of agricultural drainage system, especially drainage of wetlands, and river regulations. As a consequence, a hydrographic system with a forced water circulation has developed, that is quite different from the natural. On the one hand, it has become the reason for reversing the proportion in which the groundwater resources have been depleted, along with an increase in the surface water network density, and on the other hand it has caused a change in land use.
Ioannis E. Papadakis, Georgia Veneti, Christos Chatzissavvidis and Ioannis Therios
submitted to drought stress. Tree Physiology 33, 1061–1075.
Liu, T., van Staden, J, 2001: Growth rate, waterrelations and ion accumulation of soybean callus lines differing in salinity tolerance under salinity stress and its subsequent relief. Plant Growth Regulation 34, 277–285.
Munns, R., Tester, M., 2008: Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annual Review of Plant Biology 59, 651–681.
Papadakis, I. E., Veneti, G., Chatzissavvidis, C., Sotiropoulos, T. E., Dimassi, K. N., Therios, I. N., 2007: Growth, mineral composition, leaf chlorophyll and water
9. Ishizaki, H., T. Akiya: Effect of chlorine on growth and quality of tobacco. I. Relation between chloride amount given at sowing and quality of the harvested leaves; Utsunomiya Tab. Shikenjo Hokoku 16 (1978) 55–62.
10. Istituto Sperimentale per il Tabacco: Modelli varietali dei tabacchi orientali coltivati in Italia [Please insert title in English]; Scafati (Sa), Italy, 1981.
11. Karami, I., D.R. Krieg, J.E. Quinseberry: Waterrelations and carbon-14 assimilation of cotton with differ-ent leaf morphology; Crop
Tolerance to water stress in boron-deficient tea (Camellia sinensis) plants
The effects of boron (B) deficiency and water stress were studied in tea plants (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) grown in growth chambers in perlite irrigated with a nutrient solution. Dry matter production was reduced significantly by both low B supply and water stress. Shoot-root translocation of B declined in water-stressed plants. In addition, the re-translocation of B was impaired under drought, which was reflected in a significantly lower ratio of B content of young to old leaves in both B-deficient and B-sufficient plants. Leaf photochemical parameters were negatively influenced by B deficiency and water stress in the old but not in the young leaves. Although B-deficient plants were more conservative in relation to water loss following elevated stomatal limitation, their water potential was lower than in B-sufficient plants irrespective of the watering regime. Under the combined effects of B deficiency and water stress, the reduction in the CO2 assimilation rate was more prominent than that under a single stress factor. The reduction of the net assimilation rate (A) in B-deficient plants due to water stress and in water-stressed plants due to low B supply were not accompanied by significant changes in the stomatal conductance, suggesting an involvement of non-stomatal factors. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content increased under B deficiency and water stress conditions. Our results suggested that, in young leaves that have been developed under water stress, an acclimation to water stress conditions occurred that was well reflected in their more stable photochemistry, water relations and an efficient antioxidant defence system compared with the older leaves.
The research involved a detailed analysis of transformations in water relations in the Wieczno Południowe (Wieczno South) lake drainage basin in central Poland, in the physical geographical region of the Chełmno Lakeland. Significant changes were identified in the water relations in the catchment, which were caused by a number of anthropogenic factors. The most significant factors include land development works, changes in land use (a decrease in wetland area in favour of arable land), and the extraction of water from Lake Wieczno South (for irrigation purposes) and the creation of a weir construction on its outflow. It has been shown that in recent years the drainage basin’s water resources have been affected by climate fluctuations manifested as an increase in sums of evaporation. As a result of the deterioration of water relations in the catchment, the hydrological type of some lakes (Płużnica, Wieczno North and Wieczno South) have changed, which unexpectedly resulted in an improvement of their water quality. Taking into account the forecasts for further climate change, this factor will probably have a decisive influence on the water relations of the studied area in the coming years.
Sylwester Grajewski, Anna Krysztofiak and Antoni Miler
. (Prediction of the effect of river water lifting on ground waters and calculation of the draining systems). Kraków, PKrak.
Grajewski S., 2006. Stosunki wodne oraz zdolność retencyjna obszarów leśnych Parku Krajobrazowego Puszcza Zielonka. (Waterrelations and retention capacity of forest areas of the Landscape Park Puszcza Zielonka). Rozpr. Nauk. AR Pozn., 382: 92.
Gutry-Korycka M., 1989. Intercepcja pokrywy roślinnej. W: Procesy hydrologiczne: fizycznoge-ograficzne podstawy modelowania. Red. U. Soczyńska. (Interception of
accumulation during stress. Plant, Cell and Environment 21, 535-553.
Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Alyemeni, M. N., Wani, A. S., Pichtel, J., Ahmad, A., 2012: Role of proline under changing environments: a review. Plant Signaling and Behavior 7, 1456-1466.
Heath, R. L., Packer, L., 1968: Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts. I-kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 125, 189-198.
Hohl, M., Schopfer, P., 1991: Waterrelations of growing maize coleoptiles. Comparison between mannitol and polyethylene glycol 6000 as
agriculture and agri-food processing, external costs such as:
– loss of profits related to the loss of harvest as a result of cessation of crop production in the area of outcrops and adjacent technical belts as a result of irretrievable and temporary exclusion from agricultural production of agriculture land located in this area. The entire farms will be liquidated along with their animal production.
– loss of profits resulting from the decrease in yields as a result of irreversible violation of waterrelations around the mine due to depression of the depression
–Turk area]. Ed. W. Stankowski. Poznań. Wydaw. Nauk. UAM p. 137–151.
K aniecki A. 1997. Wpływ XIX-wiecznych melioracji na zmiany poziomu wód. W: Wpływ antropopresji na jeziora [Influence of 19 th century reclamations on the changes in water level. In: Impact of anhropopressure on lakes]. Ed. A. Choiński. Poznań. Wydaw. Nauk. UAM p. 67–71.
K aniecki A. 2007. Przemiany stosunków wodnych na obszarze Niziny Wielkopolskiej do końca XVIII wieku związane z antropopresją. W: Obieg wody w środowisku naturalnym i przekształconym [Changes of waterrelations in the area