Janusz Wojdalski, Bogdan Dróżdż, Janusz Piechocki, Marek Gaworski, Zygmunt Zander and Jan Marjanowski
., Rajmund, A. (2010). Indicators of waterconsumption and the quantity of wastewater formed in selected branches of food industry. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology , 12, 4, pp. 6-10. DOI 10.2478/ v10026-010-0040-z.
7. WS Atkins Int. (1998). Environmental protection in the agro-food industry. Environmental Standards. FAPA, Warszawa, pp. 62-65, 77, 80, 86-87 (in Polish).
8. Central Statistical Office (2012). Environment. 2012. Warszawa, pp. 141, 539 ( in Polish).
9. Casani, S., Rouhany, M. & Knøchel, S. 2005. A
Janusz Rak, Katarzyna Pietrucha and Monika Solecka
The aim of the work is the analysis of water consumption in Rzeszow city. The quantity of produced water in Water Plants: Zwieczyca I and Zwieczyca II were performed for years 2007÷2009. The individual average twenty-four hour water consumption per one inhabitant was estimated. A stable decrease was observed in annual water consumption in years 2000÷2009. On the example of housing estate Nowe Miasto, the analysis of water consumption concerning the heights of the buildings was made. The biggest individual water consumption was marked in ten-storey house, and the smallest in single-family house. The next step regard the water consumption depending on the days in week. The biggest water consumption was in Thursdays, and the smallest in Sundays. Also the maximum and minimum twenty-four hour water consumption in the division into months in 2009 year were determined.
inland navigation in Bydgoszcz Water Junction - in Polish). In: Szumińska, D. editor, Geography and Tourism , 1, pp. 69-76. http://www.geography.and. tourism.ukw.edu.pl, DoA: 14.12.2014.
Gorczyca, M. , 2013: Zużycie wody wodociągowej w gospodarstwach domowych (Waterworks waterconsumption in households - in Polish). In: Gospodarka Wodna , 2/2013, pp. 73-74. http://www. sigma-not.pl/publikacja-74937-zużycie-wody-wodo-ciagowej-w-gospodarstwach-domowych-gospodar-ka-wodna-2013-2.html, DoA: 14.12.2014
Heidrich, Z. and Jędrzejkiewicz, J. , 2007: Analiza zuży-cia wody w
Water consumption depends on the consumers’ habits, industrial companies and the nature of the activity, as well as on public users. Water consumption in Lithuania has decreased by more than three times over the past two decades. This was influenced by the changed consumers’ habits, implemented water metering and increased water prices. But it has been analyzed little, how the dynamics of water consumption has been changing. This article examines the dynamics of water consumption variation over 20 years in one of Vilnius district. Variations of water consumption are analyzed in the article and the obtained results are compared with the parameters in the legal acts. Water consumption per night was analyzed in the article also, as these values could be fast and reliable assessment of water losses in network. The analysis of night water consumption was conducted and the recommended norm of night water consumption indicated.
Ewa Ogiołda, Ireneusz Nowogoński and Przemysław Pietrzak
1. Bajer, J and Iwanejko, R 2014. Dynamics of Changes in the Unitary Consumption of Water in Selected Cities of Southern Poland (Dynamika zmian jednostkowego zużycia wody w wybranych miastach Polski południowej). Instal – teoria i praktyka w instalacjach 4 , 64-68.
2. Bergel, T 2013. WaterConsumption in Rural and Urban-Rural Water Supply Systems in Poland (Zużycie wody w wiejskich i miejsko-wiejskich wodociągach w Polsce). Gaz, Woda i Technika Sanitarna 2 , 99-101.
3. Bugajski, P and Kaczor, G 2007. Structure of Water
Influence of Changes in Hot Water Consumption on the DHS Development
The methodology proposed in the paper is based on the concept of Energy Efficiency Uninterrupted Development Cycle (EEUDC). The goal of the authors was to clarify how the district heating system (DHS) development is affected by the heat consumption. The primary emphasis was given to the hot water consumption, with its noticeable daily fluctuations as well as changes caused by those in the inhabitants' way of life. The methodology, which is in good agreement with the ideology of advanced management of DHS development, employs the ISO 14000 series of standards (widely applied in the sphere of environment management). In the work, experimental results are presented that have been obtained through monitoring the hot water consumption. The results evidence that this consumption and its usage indices correspond to the level achieved by Western (in particular, North-European) countries. This circumstance changes considerably the input data for calculation of DHS elements, making it possible to work out appropriate measures in order to improve the DHS efficiency through step-by-step replacement of the elements with high energy loss.
M.H. Shahrajabian, A. Soleymani, P.O. Ogbaji and X. Xue
To evaluate soil water consumption, changes in quantity and quality of winter wheat seed and forage under different irrigation treatments, an experiment was conducted in Beijing, China, in the 2012-2013. Irrigation treatments were (I1): irrigation before sowing, (I2): irrigation before sowing + before freezing; (I3): irrigation before sowing + before freezing + irrigation in the beginning of erecting stage + irrigation at flowering stage; (I4): irrigation before sowing + irrigation before freezing + irrigation at the booting stage + irrigation at flowering stage. The laid out of experiment was randomized complete block design, repeated six times. The effect of irrigation on total biological yield, grain yield and harvest index is significant. The highest mean soil water consumption in Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr. and May was obtained for lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 6 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 11 (I3), and lysimeter 10 (I2), respectively. The results from the study indicate that irrigation winter wheat throughout the booting stage and flowering stage increased grain yield, harvest index, potassium percentage, ash percentage of forage wheat at flowering stage, seed and forage protein percentage. Evapotranspiration trends increased steadily, especially in last three months, in which the lysimeter fields were covered by winter wheat completely.
Maria Strzelczyk, Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska and Agnieszka Rajmund
Wojdalski, J., Dróżdż, B. & Lubach, M. (2005). Factors that influence on waterconsumption in fruit and vegetable processing plants. Technological Progress in Food Processing. (Czynniki wpływające na zużycie wody w zakładach przetwórstwa owocowo-warzywnego. Postępy Techniki Przetwórstwa Spożywczego. Tom 15/26, s.39-43.).
Janus, P. (2005). Indicators of water, steam and electric energy specific consumption in selected process of vegetable processing. Agricultural Engineering. (Wskaźniki jednostkowego zużycia wody, pary wodnej i enegii
Aleksandra Lewandowska CDFMR and Adam Piasecki CDFMR
to it. It is also important that households and industry limit waterconsumption through the spreading of modern pro-ecological technologies. These factors directly favour the greening of a city.
Studies on urban water and sewage management focus on technological, technical, environmental and socio-economic aspects. Technological and technical issues relate to practical guidelines for engineers for constructing urban water and sewage networks ( Todini, 2000 ; Pape, 2008 ; Coutts et al., 2013 ; Rojas-Torres et al., 2014 ) and the best water treatment and
Ewa Ogiołda, Ireneusz Nowogoński and Maciej Babiuch
The work presents the results of the analysis of an existing water supply system. It contains a description of the analysed area in which the analysed system was located, as well as its parameters regarding water intakes and transport of water with pumps, the length and diameter of pipes, and a complication of the materials used to construct the network. Water demand accounting for the nature of the consumers using the water supply network was subject to analysis. The influence of changes in the distribution of water within a day for the basic categories of recipients was accounted for. The EPANET 2.0 program for the simulating water supply network operation, made available by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through a public-domain licence, was used to construct the model of the system. The obtained results of the simulation allowed for indicating the main problems with the use of the analysed system. Subject to analysis was the pressure pattern in characteristic nodes of the network from which mining companies, industrial plants and residential households were supplied. Usefulness of the developed simulation model in preparing the assessment of future modernization works was confirmed, allowing for the effects of their implementation to be assessed.