Premises for the construction of balance equations of water losses in mountain forest soils
The paper presents premises for the construction of equations of water budget in the atmosphere-tree stand-soil system with reference to water losses in mountain forest soils. The premises were based on results of a long-term forest-hydrologic studies carried out by authors in the Beskid Ślαski. Water properties of grounds in soil profiles and specific hydrologic properties of these profiles were considered. The main factors affecting water balance on slopes were orographic conditions, the share of skeleton parts in soil profile and the tree stand. Therefore, the equations of water loss in soil should consider: 1) the input of solar energy over tree crowns and coefficient of energy transmission within tree stand, 2) wind velocity above and within tree stand, 3) elements of water budget in the atmosphere, 4) differentiation of hydrologic properties in soil profiles dealt with as a continuum, 5) water properties of grounds constituting soil profiles with particular reference to organic matter.