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Effect of Nordic Walking and Water Aerobics Training on Body Composition and the Blood Flow in Lower Extremities in Elderly Women

Abstract

Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43) years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training), participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively) decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04). A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01), whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03). With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

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Kinesiological Analysis of Stationary Running Performed in Aquatic and Dry Land Environments

-99 Pinto SS, Liedtke GV, Alberton CL, Silva EM, Cadore EL, Kruel LFM. Electromyographic signal and force comparisons during maximal voluntary isometric contraction in water and on dry land. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2010; 110: 1075-1082 Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Silva EM, Kanitz AC, Tartaruga MP, Kruel LFM. Physiological responses during water aerobics exercise. Int J Sports Med, 2011; 32: 916-923 Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Zaffari P, Bagatini NC, Baroni BM, Radaelli R, Lanferdini FJ, Colado JC, Pinto RS, Vaz MA, Bottaro M, Kruel

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Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

, Alberton ME, Silva EM, Kanitz AC, Tartaruga MP, Kruel LFM. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses during water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment. Int J Sports Med, 2011; 32: 916-923 Pinto SS, Finatto P, Alberton CL, Kruel LFM. Correlation between rate of perceived exertion and cardiopulmonary responses in water exercise performed with equipment. Rev Bras Ativ Fis Saúde, 2013; 18: 475-482 Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Zaffari P, Bagatini NC, Baroni BM, Radaelli R, Lanferdini FJ, Colado JC, Pinto RS, Vaz MA

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The Properties of Water and their Applications for Training

neuromuscular responses during water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment. Int J Sport Med, 2011; 32: 916-923 Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Zaffari P, Bagatini NC, Baroni BM, Radaelli R, Lanferdini FJ, Colado JC, Pinto RS, Vaz MA, Bottaro M, Kruel LF. Effects of intra-session exercise sequence during water-based concurrent training. Int J Sport Med, 2014; 35: 41-48 Reilly T, Dowzer CN, Cable NT. The physiology of deep-water running. J Sports Sci 2003; 21: 959-972 Robey E, Dawson B, Halson S, Gregson W

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Cardiovascular and Perceived Effort in Different Head‐Out Water Exercises: Effect of Limbs’ Action and Resistance Equipment

The rate-pressure product as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise in patients with angina pectoris Circulation 1978 57 549 556 Kinder T, See J. Aqua Aerobics – A Scientific Approach Eddie Bowers Publishing, Dubuque, IA; 1992 Kinder T See J Aqua Aerobics – A Scientific Approach Eddie Bowers Publishing Dubuque, IA 1992 Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Alberton CL, Silva EM, Kanitz AC, Tartaruga MP, Kruel LF. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses durng water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment. Int J

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