The aim of the ongoing research is (i) to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii) to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.). [1, 2, 3]
After summarizing the previous measurements made on the ongoing research, the first results of the oedometer tests are presented. The compression curves were determined, the measured data are evaluated by two simple models, the parameters are identified, the reliability of the parameters is tested.
The simple models make possible the separation of the three major components of the settlement: the immediate settlement, the creep settlement and the primary consolidation settlement. The degradation induced strains were not considered since the tests were short term. Using these components, three different oedometric moduli are defined.
The identified parameters are presented and compared with the parameters previously identified from some CPTu dissipation test data, and with the parameters measured by some recent seismic tests. The parameters are used to estimate the settlement of the landfill.
Landfills of waste generated by coal mining could pose a serious environmental threat if not properly reclaimed. The study focuses on leaching select heavy metals from the waste disposed of by the closed down Siersza hard coal mine in Trzebinia (Silesian- Cracow area). The solid waste samples were analysed with the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method for Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn and Fe contents. The eluates were obtained by leaching the solid samples with distilled water at the ratio 1:10 and analysed with the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method. The most prone for leaching were Mn and Zn (78 and 73% of the total contents), the medium prone Pb and Cd (around 50% each), and the least prone Fe (30%). In the western part of the landfill, zinc occurs in unexpectedly high amounts (0.64-3.3 wt.%), which may be related to the presence of slag of unknown provenience. The concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd (averages in mg∙kg−1: 6727, 2.3 and 10.3, respectively) in the leachates exceed the limits of Polish environmental standards. The landfill should be properly monitored and fully reclaimed.
Krystyna Hoffmann, Józef Hoffmann, Marta Huculak-Mączka and Jakub Skut
Investigation of applying calcium oxide for the removal of bitter substances from hop wastes
Utilization of brewery wastes is one of the solutions for the production of the fodder supplements containing biogenic nutrients. The condition of such application is to meet the requirements included in the regulations regarding animal feeding, particularly removing a bitter taste. The aim of the performed investigations was the removal of bitter acids from the post-extraction hop waste using the calcium oxide addition. For the examination hop wastes obtained as a by-product from the CO2 plant extraction in supercritical conditions, were applied. Physicochemical properties of the waste samples collected for the investigations were determined by applying the available standard analytical techniques. The analyses of the determination of bitter acids were carried out by the high performance liquid chromatography method. During the experiments very good effects of bitter acids removal from hop wastes, were obtained by using CaO suspensions in water. The investigations on the influence of the CaO concentration in suspension on the efficiency of bitter acids removal indicate the possibility of applying suspensions by 2 wt% for this purpose.
This paper describes a new sequential method using anion exchange resin, which is commercially available from Eichrom Technologies, Inc., for the determination of 99Tc and 126Sn in nuclear waste samples. For the determination of non-actinide radionuclides in radioactive wastes, several methods have been recently introduced. This method is suitable for the separation of radionuclides 99Tc and 126Sn from acidic solutions. Samples after digestion were directly loaded in 2 mol·dm-3 HCl acid on a cation exchange resin and then on an anion exchange. They were eluted with HNO3. After elution, the eluted fractions were measured either by gamma spectrometry on an HPGe detector or liquid scintillation counter with high chemical recoveries for a short period of time. Activity concentrations of 126Sn were below minimum detectable activity (MDA) for each experiment. A new radioanalytical method for the sequential determination of 99Tc and 126Sn in radioactive concentrates has been developed and successfully applied. The main advantage of the method was the time required for the separation of radionuclides, which was only five hours, and single column separation for the determination of these radionuclides, which makes the method very effective and cheap.
Searching for renewable energy sources causes the increase in the interest in obtaining and processing of plant biomass for energy purposes. One of the methods of using biomass is to converse it into solid biofuels in the form of briquettes. The research covered briquette production with the use of the following plant raw materials: straw of spring crop mixture (wheat with barley – 50/50%) and oat straw and post-fermentation waste. Samples of fragmented straw with addition of post-fermentation waste were prepared in three various weight participation i.e.: 90/10%, 80/20% i 50/50%. The paper presents an assessment of physical properties of briquettes manufactured from the investigated mixtures of plant raw materials with an addition of post-fermentation waste in the hydraulic piston briquetting machine. We determined the moisture of raw materials and waste, length, diameter and mass of manufactured briquettes as well as their specific density and mechanical strength. We found out that along with the increase of the mass participation of post-fermentation waste in the accepted mixtures of plant materials from 10 to 50% their length increased from 5 to 25% and the mass from 1 to 12%. On the other hand, specific density of briquettes increased from 18 to 24% for grain mixtures and from 3 to 7% for oat straw. Mechanical strength of briquettes was within 88.3-90.6% for grain mixture and 83.6-87.1% for oat straw.
and Fuel Quality Aspects”, In: Power production from Waste and Biomass IV , Espoo Finland , 2002, pp.185-209. [Online], Available: www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/symposiums/2002/s222.pdf. [Accessed: 01.03.2012.]
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12. Latvian National organization for standardisation, LVS EN 14899:2011 Characterization of waste
Petra Roupcová, Hana Kubátová, Karel Klouda and Petr Lepík
reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications. Scientific reports 4, 4684.
ČR (2007 a).: Metodický pokyn odboru odpadů ke stanovení ekotoxicity odpadů. [Methodical instruction of Waste Department to determine the ecotoxicity of waste.] Věstník Ministerstva životního prostředí, ročník XVII , částka 4. (in Czech)
ČR (2007 b).: ČSN EN 14735 - Charakterizace odpadů - Příprava vzorků odpadu pro testy ekotoxicity [Characterization of waste - Preparation of wastesamples for ecotoxicity tests]. (in Czech)
DIXIT, P.; GHASKADBI, S.; MOHAN
-Biological Treatment: A Guide for Decision Makers, Processes, Policies and Markets. Juniper Consultancy Services. UK. 2005.
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 Cozens P. EfW - an alternative vision. In: Papadimitriou EK, Stentiford EI, editors. Biodegradable and Residual Waste Management: First UK Conference and Exhibition. Harrogate, UK. 2004:464-472.
 European Committee for Standardization, 2006. Characterization of Waste - Sampling of Waste
Milica Paut Kusturica, Ana Tomas, Zdenko Tomic, Dragica Bukumiric, Aleksandar Corac, Olga Horvat and Ana Sabo
garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical wastesample in Vienna. J Pharm Policy Pract 2014; 7: 6. 10.1186/2052-3211-7-6 Vogler S Leopold C Zuidberg C Habl C Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical wastesample in Vienna J Pharm Policy Pract 2014 7 6
3 Coma A, Modamio P, Lastra C, Bouvy M, Mariño. Returned medicines in community pharmacies of Barcelona, Spain. Pharm World Sci 2008; 30: 272–7. 10.1007/s11096-007-9177-0 Coma A Modamio P Lastra C Bouvy M Mariño Returned medicines in community pharmacies of Barcelona, Spain Pharm World Sci 2008