The influence of the catalyst worktime on SO2 emission quantity from the sulfuric acid system and the catalyst waste material
The catalytic process of SO2 to SO3 oxidation is the main step of sulfuric (VI) acid formation. The sustained catalyst operating due to its structural and textural modifications could disturb the process course. This paper includes the influence of the vanadic catalyst worktime on SO2 emission and the expected amount of the obtained waste material of the inactivated catalyst.
The aim of the ongoing research is (i) to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii) to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.). [1, 2, 3]
After summarizing the previous measurements made on the ongoing research, the first results of the oedometer tests are presented. The compression curves were determined, the measured data are evaluated by two simple models, the parameters are identified, the reliability of the parameters is tested.
The simple models make possible the separation of the three major components of the settlement: the immediate settlement, the creep settlement and the primary consolidation settlement. The degradation induced strains were not considered since the tests were short term. Using these components, three different oedometric moduli are defined.
The identified parameters are presented and compared with the parameters previously identified from some CPTu dissipation test data, and with the parameters measured by some recent seismic tests. The parameters are used to estimate the settlement of the landfill.
Jalaluddin Akbar, Syed Tanveer Shah, Muhammad Naeem Khan and Ahmad Naeem
Natural landscape is an important resource for mountainous regions and play crucial role in tourism development. Tourism play a key role in economic development of a country. Developing tourist areas is the key to meet the expectations of mountain inhabitants, tourists, and the general public outside of mountainous areas. In order to know tourist perception, problems, and role of landscape & horticulture plants in the field of tourism. A research study entitled “Role of facilities available and un-available in attracting of tourist in swat valley Pakistan “The data was collected from the respondents through a questionnaire survey and analyzed using percentages, frequencies and Chi-square test (where applicable). The analyzed data revealed that most of the respondent (55 %) considered natural green environment as a reason for their visit and 67 % respondents wanted to visit with their friends and were satisfied with the tourist area, respectively. Most of the respondent (39 %) observed throwing of surplus food as major waste materials which turned the beautiful green environment into unattractive environment. Most of the visitors (52 %) dislike un-cleanliness of the locality, 74% respondents felt ill effect due to deforestation.53 % tourist disagree with the current maintenance of the locality by tourism department. The most missed facilities were non availability of dustbins and children playing areas. 75 % respondents agreed with the fact that most of the people (local inhabitants as well as tourist) were unaware with regard to maintenance activities of the area 15.7 % respondent agreed that road system should be improved to access most of the greenery in the locality, respectively to aware local people and tourist regarding maintenance of the locality will improve tourism in Swat valley. The studies need to be develop for the improvement of existing as well as artificial landscape of the tourist area (Kalam and Malamjabba) of Swat valley.
Peter Fečko, Alena Kašpárková, Eva Pertile, Vlastimil Kříž, Barbara Tora, Andrzej Jarosiński and Iva Janáková
Application of pyrolysis residue from waste materials in black coal flotation
The paper deals with the verification of the floatability of pyrolytic oils, which were obtained through the pyrolysis of waste, namely mixed plastics, tyres and waste rubber in combination with black coal from Lazy Mine, and classical collector Montanol 551 in black coal flotation. Black coal from ČSA OKD, a.s. coal preparation plant was used for flotation tests. The results imply that it is possible to produce collectors from waste materials which may be applied in the flotation of black coal. Next, the paper focused on the identification of a suitable combination of pyrolytic oils and Montanol 551 in order to reach ash content in the concentrate below 10%.
One of the environmental challenges is a management of solid wastes produced by industrial activities. Among these industrial activities is energy production from power plant, which produces the waste material during the coal combustion processes. The power plant during the coal combustion processes produces the fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. These are solid wastes commonly referred to as coal combustion byproducts (CCBs). The coal combustion byproducts are managed in two ways: They may be disposed of in landfills or surface impoundment ponds, or they may be used in some capacity (commonly referred to as “beneficial use”). In this paper an overview of coal combustion byproducts and their physical properties are presented. The benefits of utilizing CCBs in certain application implying the utilization of CCBs in water and wastewater treatment domain are provided here as well. In fact, this paper attempts to encourage and promote the utilization of native coal combustion byproducts where the needs arise. The appropriate studies of native CCBs provide an opportunity to use these materials for supplemental needs in water environment in the future.
Using our natural resources, we produce much waste that can be recycled as a useful resource, which further contributes to climate change. Kosovo, generally produces a huge amount of waste, particularly Prishtina as the capital its capital city. The study presented in this paper investigated the high-rise buildings in Ulpiana neighbourhood of the city of Prishtina and waste disposals in Kosovo, focusing on the challenges of urban waste management, particularly on the recycling of high-rise urban generated waste. The research methods consist of empirical observation through urban spatial zone. Researched model of high-rise buildings, surveyed the land use, and recycling process of a total generated waste of 778.8 kg daily/per one structure. According to the conceptual and calculated findings strengthened with awareness for sustainable consumption, and proper urban strategy for implementing the recycling waste materials, it is indicated that the waste amount can be decreased and recycled for about 25 % from the total waste generated daily.
Krzysztof Sobieralski, Marek Siwulski, Iwona Sas-Golak, Jerzy Mańkowski and Teresa Kotlińska
Mycelium growth and yield of wild strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Quel. cultivated on waste materials from the textile industry
The objective of the experiment was to compare mycelium growth and the yield of wild strains of Pleurotus ostreatus derived from natural sites and of a cultivated HK35 strain. Mycelium growth was investigated on substrates prepared from the sawdust of deciduous trees, wheat and rye straw as well as by-products from the textile industry: flax and hemp shives. Irrespective of the applied substrate, the cultivated HK35 strain was characterised by the fastest growth, whereas amongst the examined wild strains, mycelia designated as U18/5, S12/3 and B17/4 were found to grow best. Substrates prepared from wheat and rye straw and flax shives turned out to be the best for mycelium growth of the tested strains of P. ostreatus. The yield of oyster mushroom depended on the type of applied substrate. Higher yields were recorded on substrates from flax shives and a mixture of wheat straw and hemp shives than on wheat straw. The cultivated HK35 strain and the wild S12/3 strain gave the highest yields irrespective of the kind of substrate.
Jolanta Treinyte, Violeta Grazuleviciene and Jolita Ostrauskaite
Composites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing waste materials were prepared and studied as materials for encapsulation of mineral fertilizers By-products of biodiesel production (rapeseed cake, crude glycerol), horn meal (waste product of haberdashery) and phosphogypsum (by-product of the production of phosphorus fertilizers) were used as the fillers of the composites. The films of the composites with the different amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus were prepared using different fillers or their mixtures. Mechanical, properties of the films, hygroscopicity, solubility in water were studied. The composites developed were used for the encapsulation of mineral fertilizers. It was established that encapsulation resulted in the increase of the time of release of the fertilizers. The developed slow-release fertilizers represent a combination of inorganic and organic compounds. The organic part consists of nitrogen- and phosphorus containing horn meal and rapeseed cake. Since assimilation of organic substances is considerably longer, nitrogen and phosphorus of these components will be available for plants much later than inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus. Thus the composite film will not only decrease the rate of desorption of the components from the granules of the fertilizers but will also prolong the impact of the fertilizers on the plants.
Rare earth metals including yttrium and europium are one of several critical raw materials, the use of which ensures the development of the so-called high technology. The possibility of their recovery in Europe is limited practically only to secondary materials such as phosphogypsum and electronic waste.
The article presents the results of our research concerning the development of recovery technology of yttrium and europium from luminophore CRT used lamps. It describes the principle of separation of elements and the test results of cleaning the concentrate. It was shown that the costs of preparing the concentrate according to the proposed technology are lower than the phosphogypsum processing technology and the composition of the resulting product does not contain hazardous substances.
Urszula Smolińska, Beata Kowalska, Waldemar Kowalczyk, Magdalena Szczech and Aleksandra Murgrabia
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is considered as one of the most harmful soilborne pathogens, which reduces productivity of horticultural crops. Currently used chemical or biological methods for the eradication of S. sclerotiorum from a soil are not very effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of eradication of S. sclerotiorum sclerotia from a soil using the Trichoderma isolates, which were multiplied on the organic carriers prepared from agro-industrial wastes and by-products: WsA (wheat straw + apple pomaces), WsP (wheat straw + potato pulp) and T-GRAN (dry onion rind, apples and strawberry pomaces, rapeseed meal). The results showed that soil amendment with organic materials overgrown with the Trichoderma fungi had a significant reducing effect on S. sclerotiorum. Especially effective was the carrier WsA overgrown with T. virens TRS114, which completely prevented the survival of sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum regardless of the dose of application. Less effective was the WsP carrier. However, addition WsP overgrown with T. atroviride TRS40 at the 5% w/v, resulted in survival only 6.7% of sclerotia. In the greenhouse experiments with lettuce, the application of granulates T-GRAN into the soil had different impact on S. sclerotiorum depending on the conditions to the pathogen development. In conducive conditions, an addition of the organic substances without Trichoderma significantly decreased the yield of lettuce plants. A positive effect on the growth of plants was observed after the application of T-GRAN overgrown with Trichoderma.