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Press. Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(4), 260-293. doi: 10.1080/19312450802458935 Meada, A. W. & Kroustalis, C. M. (2006). Problems with item parceling for confirmatory factor analytic tests of measurement invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 9(3), 369-403. doi: 10.1177/1094428105283384 Mizumoto, A. (2013). Enhancing self-efficacy in vocabulary learning: A self-regulated learning approach. Vocabulary Learning and Instruction, 2(1), 15-24. doi: 10.7820/vli.v02.1.mizumoto

., & Tomasello, M. (2002). Two-year-olds learn novel nouns, verbs, and conventional actions from massed or distributed exposures. Developmental psychology, 38(6), 967. Doi: D'Odorico, L. A. U. R. A., & Fasolo, M. (2007). Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children. Journal of Child Language, 34(04), 891-907. Doi: Ellis, N. C., & Beaton, A. (1993). Psycholinguistic determinants of foreign language vocabulary learning. Language Learning, 43(4), 559-617. Doi: 10.1111/j

Spontaneous Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

The paper argues that language learners employ learning strategies naturally. To corroborate the claim it presents a research on vocabulary learning strategies and provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the findings and concludes with some pedagogical suggestions.


This paper will explore the issue of similar lexical forms (Laufer 1991) as a potential problem in vocabulary acquisition of Serbian EFL learners. Building on previous research (Kocić 2008), we collected data from two groups of undergraduate students at the Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac (lower- and upper-intermediate), and attempted to identify the factors that contribute to synform confusions.

REFERENCES Ahmed, M.O. 1999. ‘Vocabulary learning strategies’ in P. Meara (ed.). Beyond words , 3–14. London: British Association for Applied Linguistics. Altiner, C. 2011. Integrating a Computer-Based Flashcard Program into Academic Vocabulary Learning . MSc Thesis. Iowa State University. Amiryousefi, M. 2015. ‘Individuality in higher education: The use of the multiple-mnemonic method to enhance ESP students’ vocabulary development (depth and size) and retention.’ Applied Research on English Language , 4(1): 45–58. Ashcroft, R. J. and A. C. Imrie. 2014


Memrise is an educational tool available both online and for mobile devices. Memrise uses flashcards and mnemonic techniques to aid in teaching foreign languages and memorizing information from other subjects, e.g. geography, law or mathematics. Memrise courses are created by its users through the process of crowdsourcing; therefore they are tailored to the individual needs of the users and may focus on the specific content of a particular coursebook or classes.

The paper will attempt to present possibilities of using memrise in teaching and learning legal English vocabulary during a tertiary course leading to TOLES (Test of Legal English Skills) certificate examination. The paper will look at various types of exercises which facilitate memorizing vocabulary, learning collocations, prepositional phrases, develop the skill of paraphrasing and defining legal terms of art in plain English. Application of the crowdsourcing method enables the learners to participate in the process of the course creation and constitutes for them a supplementary, out of class exposure to the target language.

The second part of the paper will discuss the results of the research conducted by the author among her law students. The aim of the research was to investigate the students′ opinions about memrise as a tool which might facilitate individual learning of the specialist language, as well as to assess whether memrise may influence the test results achieved by the students during the legal English course. The paper will contrastively analyse the progress tests results achieved by the students who have used memrise to revise and recycle language material and those who have chosen traditional (non-mobile) methods of learning. The research also attempted to address the question whether the students who had been the contributors to the content of memrise courses had performed better in tests than those who had only been the users.

Approach. London: LTP Teacher Training. Pavičić Takač, V. 2008. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Foreign Language Acquistion. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters. Sinclair, J. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation, Oxford University Press. Thornbury, S. 2008. Uncovering Grammar. Oxford: Macmillan Education. Wray, A., Perkins, M. 2000. ‘The functions of formulaic language: an integrated model’. Language & Communication Vol. 20 (1): 1-28. Wray, A. 2002. Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wray, A. 2008. Formulaic Language: Pushing the

/foreign language teaching’. TESOL Quarterly 28.1: 27–47. Hu, Guangwei (2002). Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: the case of communicative language teaching in China. Language, Culture and Curriculum 15.2: 67–703. Laufer, Batia (2005). Focus on form in second language vocabulary learning. EUROSLA Yearbook 5: 223–250. Laufer, Batia, & Nancy Girsai (2008). Form-focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning: A case for contrastive analysis and translation. Applied Linguistics 27.4: 694–716. Leaver, Betty Lou, & Jane R. Willis (2004). Task

in ExELL

Foreign Languages. Retrieved from Murphey, E. (1988). The cultural dimension in foreign language teaching: Four Models. Language, Culture and Curriculum , 1(2), 147-163. Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning Vocabulary in Another Language . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schmitt, N. (2008). Review article Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research , 12(3), 329-363.

” in Lessons from Good Language Learners. Carol Griffiths (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 159-173. Nation, I. S. P. 1990. Teaching and learning vocabulary. New York: Newbury House. Partridge, Eric. 1983. Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Greenwich House. Schmitt, Norbert. 2008. “Instructed second language vocabulary learning.” in Language Teaching Research 12 (3), pp. 329-363. Schmitt, Norbert and Paul Meara (1997). “Researching vocabulary through a word knowledge framework (Word associations and verbal suffixes