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References 1. Baroncelli G.I., Bereket A., El Kholy M., Audì L., Cesur Y., Ozkan B. & Rashad M. (2008). Rickets in the Middle East: Role of Environment and Genetic Predisposition. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 93(5), 1743 2. Georgescu A. & Ciofu E.P. (2008). Ghiduri si protocoale în pediatrie: volum de ghiduri si rezumate, Bucureşti: Ed. Amalteea 3. Ozkan B., Doneray H., Karacan M., Vancelik S., Yildirim Z.K., Ozkan A., Kosan C. & Aydin K. (2009). European Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in the eastern part of Turkey. Journal of

-Kim J. Th17 and regulatory T cells in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012; 67: 311–18. 5. Urrutia RP, Thorp JM. Vitamin D in pregnancy: current concepts. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2012; 24: 57–64. 6. Ota K, Dambaeva S, Han AR, Beaman K, Gilman-Sachs A, Kwak-Kim J. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy losses by increasing cellular immunity and autoimmunity. Hum Reprod 2014; 29: 208–19. 7. Andersen LB, Jørgensen JS, Jensen TK, Dalgård C, Barington T, Nielsen J, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with

–angiotensin system; RRT, renal replacement therapy; NA, not applicable; nPNA, normalized protein nitrogen appearance; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcifediol) Data are presented as mean ± SD and median (interquartile range, IQR) Patients in the PD group had a significantly lower level of serum 25(OH)D than those in the OL-HDF and KT groups. All patients with severe vitamin D deficiency, that is, serum [25(OH)D] –5 ng/mL, were maintained on PD. Patients receiving PD were significantly older and had less dialysis vintage (years of treatment) than patients in the OL-HDF and KT

in relation to metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin in a young Middle-Eastern population. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009; 160: 965-71. 19. Kim MK, Kang MI, Oh KW, Kwon HS, Lee JH, Lee WC, et al. The association of serum vitamin D level with presence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged Korean subjects. Clin Endocrinol. 2010; 73: 330-8. 20. Soontrapa S, Soontrapa S, Chailurkit L. The prevalence and the calcidiol levels of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly Thai women in municipality of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Srinagarind Med J

References 1. Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(6 Suppl): 1678S-88S. 2. Holick M. Vitamin D: a D-lightful health perspective. Nutr Rev 2008;66(Suppl2):182-94. 3. Płudowski P, Karczmarewicz E, Bayer M, et al. Practical guidelines for the supplementation of vitamin D and the treatment of deficits in Central Europe - recommended vitamin D intakes in the general population and groups at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Endokrynol Pol 2013;64(4):319-27. 4

., Shaftman, S.R., Hollis, B.W. &Gilkeson, G.S. (2006). Vitamin D deficiency in systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmun Rev. 5,114-117. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2005.05.009. 5. Runia, T.F., Hop, W.C., De Rijke, Y.B., Buljevak D. & Hintzen, R.Q. (2012). Lower serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher relapse risk in multiple sclerosis. Neurology.(79), 261-266. 6. Varenna, M., Manara, M., Cantatore, F. P., Del Puente, A., Di Munno, O., Malavolta, N., Minisola, G., Adami, S., Sinigaglia, L. & Rossini, M. (2012). Determinants and effects of vitamin D supplementation on

References 1. Holick MF. The D-Lightful Vitamin D for Health. J Med Biochem 2013: 32: 1–10. 2. Guessous I. Role of Vitamin D deficiency in extraskeletal complications: predictor of health outcome or marker of health status? Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015: 563403. 3. Deng X, Song Y, Manson JE, Signorello LB, Zhang SM, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Seidner DL, Dai Q. Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III. BMC Med 2013; 11: 187. 4. Holick MF. Vitamin D: important for

References 1. Iannuzzi MC, Rybicki BA, Teirstein AS. Sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 2153-65. 2. Vučinić V, [umarac Z, Vuković M, Stjepanović M, Omcikus M, Videnović J, Skodrić-Trifunović V, Filipović S. 25(OH)D3 Vitamin Serum Levels Associated With Chronic Sarcoidosis. Chest October 2011 vol. 140 no. 4 Meeting Abstracts 617A. 3. Bozzetto S, Carraro S, Giordano G, Boner A, Baraldi E. Asthma, allergy and respiratory infections: the vitamin D hypothesis. Allergy 2012; 67(1): 10-17. 4. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 266-81. 5. Merlino

Abstract

The primordial germ cells (PGCs) in female animals are comprised of diplotene oocytes arrested in the first meiotic prophase. Expression of Vasa is one of the key factors required for subsequent resumption of development and recruitment of PGCs into the growing follicle class. Since vitamin D regulates recruitment of PGCs and developmental competence of ovarian follicles, this study was designed to investigate the expression of Vasa and rate of apoptosis in foetal ovaries prenatally restricted from dietary vitamin D. Nineteen sexually mature Welsh mountain ewes were randomly assigned to vitamin D deficient (VDD) and vitamin D control (VDC) diets from 17d before mating, up to 125d of gestation, when fetal ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. VDD ovaries had fewer healthy oocytes that could stain positive for Vasa as well as a lower integrated density value for DAB staining intensity. Conversely, TUNNEL staining in VDD animals showed a higher integrated density value and percentage of affected area (P<0.05). The present findings indicate that Vasa expression is decreased, while the rate of apoptosis increased in VDD fetal ovaries, and this may adversely affect resumption of growth and development of PGCs reserve.

References 1. WHO Global tuberculosis control: a short update to the 2009 report. World Health Organization, Geneva (2009). 2. Holick M F. Vitamin D: A D-Lightful solution for good health. J Med Biochem 2012; 31: 263–4. 3. Viljakainen H T, Palssa A, Kärkkäinen M, Jakobsen J, Lamberg-Allardt C. How much vitamin D3 do the elderly need? J Am Coll Nutr 2006 Oct; 25(5): 429–35. 4. Wilkinson RJ, Llewelyn M, Toossi Z, Patel P, Pasvol G, Lalvani A, et al. Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians in west