1. Andrzejewska M., Klawe J.J., Szczepańska B., Śpica D.: Occurrence of virulencegenes among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from domestic animals and children. Polish J Vet Sci 2011, 2 , 207-211.
2. Bang D.D., Scheutz F., Ahrens P., Pedersen K., Blom J., Madsen M.: Prevalence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes and CDT production in Campylobacter spp. isolated from Danish broilers. J Med Microbiol 2001, 50 , 1087-1094.
3. Carvalho A.C., Ruiz-Palacios G
Daniela Cristea, Mihaela Oprea, Adriana Simona Ciontea, Felicia Antohe and Codruta-Romanita Usein
: serodiversity, virulencegenes, and antimicrobial resistance. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014 Jul 14;8(7):904-8. DOI: 10.3855/jidc.3692
23. Roy S, Thanasekaran K, Dutta Roy AR, Sehgal SC. Distribution of Shigella enterotoxin genes and secreted autotransporter toxin gene among diverse species and serotypes of shigella isolated from Andaman Islands, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006 Nov;11(11):1694-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01723.x
24. Al-Hasani K, Rajakumar K, Bulach D, Robins-Browne R, Adler B, Sakellaris H. Genetic organization of the she pathogenicity island in
Alise Jakovele, Vizma Nikolajeva, Jūlija Trofimova and Natalja Ivanova
Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2006–09). J. Antimicrob. Chemother ., 66 (9), 2070–2074.
Jiang, Y., Yin, S., Dudley, E. G., Cutter, C. N. (2015). Diversity of CRISPR loci and virulencegenes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from various sources. Int. J. Food Microbiol ., 204 , 41–46.
Karmali, M. A., Mascarenhas, M., Shen, S., Ziebell, K., Johnson, S., Reid-Smith, R., Isaac-Renton, J., Clark, C., Rahn, K., Kaper, B. (2003). Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli
A. Onasanya, M.M. Ekperigin, R.O. Onasanya, T.O. Obafemi, A.T. Ogundipe, A.A. Ojo and I. Ingelbrecht
Global rice production is constrained by bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). BLB disease incidence in West Africa was between 70–85% and yield loss in farmers’ fields was in the range of 50–90% from 2005 to 2010. In the present study, African Xoo virulence gene OPP-172000 DNA marker was identified and purified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) products from 50 Xoo isolates. Genomic DNA of 50 Xoo isolates were analyzed using OPP-17 primer in RAPD-PCR during which African Xoo virulence gene OPP-172000 DNA marker was identified, purified, cloned, and sequenced. Cloning and DNA sequencing of African Xoo virulence gene OPP-172000 DNA generated a 1953 bp nucleotide sequence consequently tagged as AXaVrg-1953. BLAST homologous analysis of the AXaVrg-1953 sequence provides comprehensive identification of the type II secretion genes and secreted proteins, type III secretion genes and secreted proteins in African Xoo virulence gene. Phylogenetic unweighted pairgroup method arithmetic (UPGMA) analysis revealed the African AXaVrg-1953 sequence was distinct from the other Xoo virulence gene sequences from China, Japan, Korea, Germany, and the United States. This information is potentially useful for effective management of BLB disease in West Africa.
Introduction: Colibacillosis – the most common disease of poultry, is caused mainly by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). However, thus far, no pattern to the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of these bacteria has been established beyond dispute. In this study, genomes of APEC were investigated to ascribe importance and explore the distribution of 16 genes recognised as their virulence factors.
Material and Methods: A total of 14 pathogenic for poultry E. coli strains were isolated, and their DNA was sequenced, assembled de novo, and annotated. Amino acid sequences from these bacteria and an additional 16 freely available APEC amino acid sequences were analysed with the DIFFIND tool to define their virulence factors.
Results: The DIFFIND tool enabled quick, reliable, and convenient assessment of the differences between compared amino acid sequences from bacterial genomes. The presence of 16 protein sequences indicated as pathogenicity factors in poultry resulted in the generation of a heatmap which categorises genomes in terms of the existence and similarity of the analysed protein sequences.
Conclusion: The proposed method of detection of virulence factors using the capabilities of the DIFFIND tool may be useful in the analysis of similarities of E. coli and other sequences deriving from bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in reliable segregation of 30 APEC strains into five main clusters containing various virulence associated genes (VAGs).
Katarzyna Wolska, Barbara Kot, Halina Mioduszewska, Cezary Sempruch, Lidia Borkowska and Katarzyna Rymuza
This study shows an association between the frequency of the nan1 gene (encoding neuraminidase) among 62 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and adhesion of these bacteria to human buccal epithelial cells. The 52 strains in which the gene was present (83.9%) were characterized by a higher adhesiveness (the mean number of adhering bacteria was 23.51 per cell) than strains in which the gene was not detected (16.23 per cell) and the difference was significant (P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U test). Thus we found that the nan1 gene may play a role in the binding of clinical P. aeruginosa strains to buccal cells.
(also facilitating attachment of APEC to extraintestinal tracts and assisting penetration of bacteria into the tissues), toxins (protecting APEC from lysosomes), siderophores (chelating iron), and protectins (inhibiting the classical pathway of complement activity), which help the bacterial infection to become established and augment the bacterium’s resistance to the host’s immune defences. Epidemic data show that human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains and APEC often carry similar virulencegenes, suggesting the zoonotic importance of APEC strains
Cansu Onlen, Nizami Duran, Suphi Bayraktar, Emrah Ay and Burçin Ozer
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in raw yak (Poephagus grunniens) milk and milk products. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93(2):604-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2011.12.011
13. Russo LM, Melton-Celsa AR, Smith MJ, O’Brien AD. Comparisons of native Shiga toxins (Stxs) type 1 and 2 with chimeric toxins indicate that the source of the binding subunit dictates degree of toxicity. PLoS One 2014;9:e93463. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093463
14. Bai J, Shi X, Nagaraja TG. A multiplex PCR procedure for the detection of six major virulencegenes in Escherichia coli O
Bangalore H. Durgesh, Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif, Asmaa M. Malash, Mohamed I. Hashem, Mansour K. Assery, Mohammed Al Asmari and Pavithra Durgesh
by performing specific gene uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for E. faecalis and E. faecium as previously described [ 3 ]. Identification of putative virulencegenes; efaA (gene for endocarditis), gelE (gene for gelatinase), ace (gene for collagen binding antigen), asa (gene for aggregation substance), cylA (gene for cytolysin activator), and esp (gene for surface adhesin) of E. faecalis and E. faecium were performed as described previously ( Table 1 ) .
Primers used to identify species and to detect the virulencegenes