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Summary

El Salvador is currently one of the most violent countries in the world with rates of violent death second only to Syria. With gangs running rampant and state security forces unchecked, the streets have become “urban killing fields”1 while the rest of the world has turned a blind eye to the atrocities. It is time for the international community to refocus on El Salvador and work towards a solution to this dire humanitarian crisis. To that end, it is imperative that the gang violence in El Salvador should be understood by the global community as an internal “armed conflict” under international humanitarian law. By recognizing the violence in El Salvador as an “armed conflict,” international attention to resolving this human rights tragedy will increase, and Salvadoran gang leaders and government forces can be prosecuted internationally for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Abstract

This article examines the manner in which the recent collection D.C. Noir sets out to illuminate the dark urban corners of the so-called “Capital of the World.” I will look at how the neighborhood-based short stories in this collection reveal the urban underbelly of the American nation’s capital, its seedy underworld, the dark side of domestic life and murkiness of family ties, the racialized practices and institutionalized corruption plaguing the great American city. I argue that, through the collective voices of its residents, these stories offer precious insights into life as lived in the various corners of Washington, D.C., and bring to the fore a world populated not only by outcasts and the disenfranchised, but also by law enforcement officers, politicians, and high-profile representatives, similarly acting under the constraints of a dysfunctional city.

: Tilastokeskus. Surette R. (2002) Media, Crime and Criminal Justice. Images and Realities. 2 nd edition. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth. Sveinsson, K.P. (2008) A Tale of Two Englands – “Race” and Violent Crime in the Press. Runnymede Trust Publications [Online]. Retrieved October 8, 2009 from: http://www.runnymedetrust.org/publications/95/184.html Tilastokeskus (2009) Maailma numeroina. Väestö ja väestönmuutokset. [Statistics Finland: World in Numbers ], [Online]. Retrieved October 8, 2009 from: http://www.tilastokeskus.fi/tup/maanum/taulukot.html

. Thus, remittances may have different effects on different types of crimes. Moreover, remittances lead to higher human capital, which may lead to a decrease in violent and property crimes but an increase in white-collar crime ( Lochner, 2004 , 2011 ). Iyer and Topalova (2014) showed that changes in income levels result in an increase in violent and property crimes. Blakeslee and Fishman (2014) found evidence from India that changes in agricultural output caused due to rainfall shocks, leads to increases in property crimes as opposed to violent crimes. They suggest

Abstract

Sensitive outcomes of surveys are plagued by wave nonresponse and measurement error (classification error for categorical outcomes). These types of error can lead to biased estimates and erroneous conclusions if they are not understood and addressed. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is a nationally representative rotating panel survey with seven waves measuring property and violent crime victimization. Because not all crime is reported to the police, there is no gold standard measure of whether a respondent was victimized. For panel data, Markov Latent Class Analysis (MLCA) is a model-based approach that uses response patterns across interview waves to estimate false positive and false negative classification probabilities typically applied to complete data.

This article uses Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) to include respondents with partial information in MLCA. The impact of including partial respondents in the MLCA is assessed for reduction of bias in the estimates, model specification differences, and variability in classification error estimates by comparing results from complete case and FIML MLCA models. The goal is to determine the potential of FIML to improve MLCA estimates of classification error. While we apply this process to the NCVS, the approach developed is general and can be applied to any panel survey.

Abstract

Due to the recent “Right to be Forgotten” (RTBF) ruling, for queries about an individual, Google and other search engines now delist links to web pages that contain “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant, or excessive” information about that individual. In this paper we take a data-driven approach to study the RTBF in the traditional media outlets, its consequences, and its susceptibility to inference attacks. First, we do a content analysis on 283 known delisted UK media pages, using both manual investigation and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). We find that the strongest topic themes are violent crime, road accidents, drugs, murder, prostitution, financial misconduct, and sexual assault. Informed by this content analysis, we then show how a third party can discover delisted URLs along with the requesters’ names, thereby putting the efficacy of the RTBF for delisted media links in question. As a proof of concept, we perform an experiment that discovers two previously-unknown delisted URLs and their corresponding requesters. We also determine 80 requesters for the 283 known delisted media pages, and examine whether they suffer from the “Streisand effect,” a phenomenon whereby an attempt to hide a piece of information has the unintended consequence of publicizing the information more widely. To measure the presence (or lack of presence) of a Streisand effect, we develop novel metrics and methodology based on Google Trends and Twitter data. Finally, we carry out a demographic analysis of the 80 known requesters. We hope the results and observations in this paper can inform lawmakers as they refine RTBF laws in the future.

Book, Bucharest, 2005. Măcelaru Vasile, Judicial Ballistics , Bucharest, 1972. Forensic Magazine, years 2000-2014. Uţică Vasile, Dr. Florescu Bujor, Investigation and research of high violent crime- homicide- , Publishing House M.A.I., Bucharest, 2003.

References Ben-Shakhar G., Elaad E., Th e Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) as an Application of Psychophysiology: Future Prospects and Obstacles, [in:] M. Kleiner (ed.), Handbook of Polygraph Testing, Academic Press 2002, 87-102. Bradley M.T., Warfi eld J.F., Innocence, Information and the Guilty Knowledge Test in the Detection of Deception, Polygraph 1986, 15, 3, 183-194. Christianson S.A., Freij I., Von Vogelsang E., Searching for Off enders’ Memories of Violent Crimes [in:] Christianson S.A. (ed.), Off enders’ Memories of Violent Crimes, John Wiley and Sons Ltd

(Svenskarnas syn på straff). Institution of Criminology, Stockholm [5] Douglas J.E., Burgess A.W., Burgess A.G., Ressler R.K. (eds) (2006) Crime Classification Manual: A standard system for investigating and classifying violent crimes. 2 edn. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco [6] Allen R., Measuring the Severity of Physical Injury Among Assault and Homicide Victims, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1986, 2, 139-156 [7] Gennarelli T.A., Wodzin E. (eds) (2008) Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 - Update 2008. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Barrington [8] Baker

revival and the popular press. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 288-91. Diefenbach DL, West MD. Violent crime and poisson regression. J Broadcast Electron Media 2001; 45: 432-45. Greenberg BS, Eastin M, Hofschire L, Lachlan K, Brownell KD. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television. Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 1342-8. Tirodkar MA, Jain A. Food messages on African American television shows. Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 439-41. Kim M, Lennon SJ. Content analysis of diet advertisements. Cloth Text Res J 2006; 24: 345-362. Albright CL, Altman DG