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Fei Song, Haoyu Xia, Puyou Jia, Meng Zhang, Lihong Hu and Yonghong Zhou
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Mei Li, Mei Wang, Shouhai Li, Kun Huang, Wei Mao and Jianling Xia
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Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Waldemar Paździoch and Robert Pełech
Formation of environmentally friendly chloroorganic compounds technology by sewage and by-products utilization
The processes presented in the study enables the separation and disposal of the chloroorganic compounds as by-products from the vinyl chloride plant by using the dichlorethane method and also from the production of propylene oxide by the chlorohydrine method. The integrated purification method of steam stripping and adsorption onto activated carbon allows a complete removal and recovery of the chloroorganic compounds from waste water. Waste distillation fraction is formed during the production of vinyl chloride. 1,1,2-trichloroethane separated from the above fraction, can be processed to vinylidene chloride and further to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 2,3-Dichloropropene, 2-chloroallyl alcohol, 2-chloroallylamine, 2-chlorothioallyl alcohol or bis(2-chloroallylamine) can be obtained from 1,2,3-trichloropropane. In the propylene oxide plant the waste 1,2-dichloropropane is formed, which can be ammonolysed to 1,2-diaminopropane or used for the production of β-methyltaurine. Other chloroorganic compounds are subjected to chlorinolysis which results in the following compounds: perchloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, hexachloroethane, haxachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene. The substitution of the milk of lime by the soda lye solution during the saponification of chlorohydrine eliminates the formation of the CaCl2 waste.
1. Jia, P., Zhang, M., Hu, L., Feng, G. & Zhou, Y. (2015). Synthesis of novel caged phosphate esters and their flame retardant effect on poly(vinylchloride) blends. Chem. Lett. 44, 1220–1222. DOI: 10.1246/cl.150374.
2. Silva, M.A.D., Vieira, M.G.A., Maçumoto, A.C.G. & Beppu, M.M. (2011). Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and natural rubber films plasticized with a natural polymeric plasticizer obtained through polyesterification of rice fatty acid. Polym. Test . 30, 478–484. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2011
Anna Paradowska, Katarzyna Kaźmierska and Tomasz Ciach
Influence of the coating process parameters on the quality of PUR/PVP hydrogel coatings for PVC medical devices
To decrease friction factor and enhance the biocompatibility of medical devices manufactured from poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, the surface modification with wear resistant polyurethane/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PUR/PVP) hydrogel coating can be applied. In the present work substrates were dip-coated with PVP and PUR solutions and thermally cured. The variable process parameters were: solvent system; concentration of polymers (1, 2 or 3% w/v); coating baths temperature (22, 38 and 55°C); drying temperature (32, 50 and 67°C); length of break between process steps (5, 30 and 90 s); and solutions storage time (up to 72 hrs). The quality of coatings was determined by friction coefficients against porcine aorta, weights of the deposited layer and the swelling capacity. The solvent system and polymers concentration were crucial factors. The increased temperature of coating solutions caused increased deposition but decreased durability. The most lubricious samples were dried in 50°C. Coatings from the solutions prepared 24h prior to use had better properties than those from fresh solutions.
Gabriel Wróbel, Maciej Rojek and Małgorzata Szymiczek
The purpose of the present work was the elaboration of research methodology of the exhaustion degree of performance properties of pipes based on unsaturated polyester and glass fibers, which were manufactured by the cross winding method on a poly(vinyl chloride) core. Within the frame of the work we conducted fatigue-ageing tests being the simulation tool of the degradation process of polyester-glass pipes. Diagnosis of the composite material condition was conducted with the use of nondestructive ultrasonic testing with the application of the echo method, in which the transition time of ultrasonic wave was determined as the identifying parameter. The registered transition time of ultrasonic wave allowed the identification of the material condition during the course of pipes exploitation.
Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Marcin Bartkowiak and Robert Pełech
Utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds
Efficient methods of utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds coming from waste water and the waste streams formed e.g. in the production of vinyl chloride by dichloroethane method and in the production of propylene oxide by chlorohydrin method have been presented. First the separation of chloroorganic wastes by the adsorption methods has been described in the article. Three valuable methods of chlorocompounds utilization have been then discussed. The first one is isomerization of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane as the valuable product with less toxicity than a substrate. The second method is ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The third described method is chlorolysis. This method can be used for the utilization of all types of waste chloroorganics.
Vishwanath Mane, Sacchi Rajappa, Subba Rao and Hegde A. Vittal
Present study aims to investigate the influence of relative breakwater width W/L (W=width of breakwater, L=wavelength), wave steepness Hi/gT2 (Hi=incident wave height, T=wave period) and relative wave height d/W (d=water depth) on forces in the moorings of horizontal interlaced multi-layered moored floating pipe breakwater (HIMMFPB) model. Studies were conducted on scaled down physical models having three layers of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) pipes, wave steepness Hi/gT2 varying from 0.063 to 0.849, relative width W/L varying from 0.4 to 2.65 and relative spacing S/D=2 (S=horizontal centre-to-centre spacing of pipes, D=diameter of pipes). Peak mooring forces were also measured and data collected is analyzed by plotting non-dimensional graphs depicting variation of fs/γW2 (fs=Sea side Mooring force, γ=specific weight of water) & fl/γW2 (fl=Lee side Mooring force) with Hi/gT2 for d/W varying from 0.082 to 0.276 and also variation of fs/γW2 and fl/γW2 with W/L for Hi/d varying from 0.06 to 0.400.