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-hui. Analysis on vertical distribution of nearshore fluid velocity and sediment concentration [J]. Marine Science Bulletin, 2012, 31(6):607-612. 5. MONIN A S, YAGLOM A M. Stastical fluid mechanics : mechanics of turbulence [M]. Third Edition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1977. 6. Ni Jin-ren , Wang Guang-qian, Zhang Hong-wu. The basic theory of solid-liquid two phrase flow and its new application [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1991. 7. Ning Chien, Wang Zhao-hui. Mechanics of sediment transport [M]. Virginia:ASCE Press, 1999. 8. SCHAUER U. Determination of bottom boundary layer

:// [25] Háněl, L. (1994): Structure and dynamics of soil nematode community in beat and potato fields. Biologia, Bratislava. 49: 153–159 [26] Háněl, L. (1997): Vertical distribution of soil nematode diversity and abundance in a Central European oak forest. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 61: 97–112 [27] Háněl, L. (2003): Soil nematodes in cambisol agroecosystems of the Czech Republic. Biologia (Bratislava), 58: 205–216 [28] Háněl, L. (2008): Nematode assemblages indicate soil restoration on colliery spoils afforested by planting different


The coordinates of 18°26′ and 19°22′ east latitude and 41°52′ and 43°32′ north longitude set geographic position of Montenegro. The total length of its land borders is 614 km. The border alongside Croatia is 14 km long, alongside Bosnia and Herzegovina 225 km, alongside Serbia 20 km, and alongside Albania 172 km of the state border (partly across the Scadar lake and alongside the river Bojana). There is a 100 km of air distance between the furthest points at the sea. The factual length of the Montenegrin coast is about 280 km, which makes the serrated coefficient of 2.8. Montenegro is in proportion to its territory and population the smallest of all ex-Yugoslav republics. It spreads over the area of 13,812 square kilometres which makes 5.4% of ex-Yugoslav territory. According to 2003 census, 620.145 citizens lived in 1240 settlements, which were 45 citizens on a square kilometre. Out of 21 municipalities six are in the coastal region. The largest municipality in Montenegro (as well as in both ex-Yugoslavia and in the State union of Serbia and Montenegro) is Nikšić with 2,065 square kilometres, and the smallest is Tivat with 46 square kilometres. The capital of Montenegro is Podgorica with population of 96,076.

comparison of two mesotrophic lakes in Brandenburg (Germany), Int.. Rev. Hydrobiol. 85: 167–189. Kring S.A., Figary S.E., Boyer G.L., Watson S.B., Twiss M.R., 2014, Rapid in situ measures of phytoplankton communities using the bbe FluoroProbe: evaluation of spectral calibration, instrument intercompatibility, and performance range, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 71(7): 1087–1095. Longhi M.L., Beisner B.E., 2009, Environmental factors controlling the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in lakes, J. Plankton Res. 31(10): 1195–1207. Lorenzen C.J., 1965, A note on the


In 2013–2014, a set of 30 pheromone traps baited with synthetic lures attracting I. duplicatus (Duplodor – 15 traps) and I. cembrae (Cembrodor – 15 traps) was installed in 6 altitudinal transects (1000–1400 m a.s.l., every 100 m of elevation) in the eastern, central and western part of the Tatra National Park (TPN) in Poland and operated during the entire growing season. The main aim of the survey was to check if and to what vertical extent these two species of bark beetles, not yet recorded, are presently distributed in TPN. Collected insects, including non-target Scolytinae and Cerambycidae, were determined. Overall 1896 Scolytid bark beetles belonging to 13 species, all occurring in the whole elevation range, were collected. I. duplicatus (28 specimens in total) was collected in the whole elevation profile, similarly as I. cembrae (718 specimens in total). Among Cerambycidae (282 individuals) belonging to 19 species, Rhagium inquisitor and Pidonia lurida, found on all elevations, were the most abundant; 8 species were collected on the highest locality. Pogonocherus decoratus was found for the first time in the Tatra. Results indicate the upward spreading of the studied insects as a possible effect of climate change and the resulting environmental conditions favourable for those organisms.

Predation follows competition in depth selection behaviour of Cladocera in a deep lake (E Poland)

Observations of the vertical distribution of Cladocera in the pelagic zone of the deep Lake Piaseczno (38.8 m) focused on 6 species: Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Daphnia longispina, D. cucullata, Bosmina coregoni, B. longirostris, and Chydorus sphaericus. The animals displayed clear depth preferences, and their migration patterns were limited to small depth amplitudes. The results show that vertical habitat segregation of cladocerans in the lake consists mostly in the mechanism of competition for accessible food resources, rather than in the mechanism of predation avoidance.

soils. J. Nematol., 31: 142–154 [17] Norton, D. C., Frerick, L. R., Ponchillia, P. E., Nyhan, J. W. (1971): Correlations of nematodes and soil properties in soybean fields. J. Nematol., 3: 154–163 [18] Norton, D. C., Hoffmann, J. K. (1974): Distribution of selected plant parasitic nematodes relative to vegetation and edaphic factors. J. Nematol., 6: 81–86 [19] Ou, W., Liang, W. J., Jiang, Y., Li, Q., Wen, D. Z. (2005): Vertical distribution of soil nematodes under different land use types in an aquic brown soil. Pedobiologia, 49: 139–148


Surface deposits and sediment cores were collected from the Upper Bonny Estuary, located in Southwest Nigeria, and analyzed to determine spatio-temporal and vertical distributions of radio-nuclide activities expressed in Bq·kg−1 dry weight. The results of activities of naturally occurring radionuclides of 226Ra (15 ± 2–34 ± 3 Bq·kg−1), 228Ra (32 ± 5–48 ± 6 Bq·kg−1), 40K (264 ± 29–462 ± 36 Bq·kg−1) were found to be all within the range of typical values reported for coastal regions. Ratios of 226Ra to 228Ra suggested accretion for all samples with low sediment accumulation registered during rainy months. In addition, vertical distributions at the three sampling sites were also studied with the initial aim of establishing chronologies from the decay of excess 210Pb. In two cores, excess 210Pb, estimated by subtracting 226Ra from total 210Pb on a layer-by-layer basis, exhibit relatively constant activity with discrete minima and maxima. Therefore, these cores were excluded from radiometric dating. Only the third core could be dated by the constant rate of supply model, and 137Cs was utilized to validate the 210Pb chronology.

hazards indices of chemical fertilizers commonly used in Upper Egypt. J Radiation Res Appl Sci. 2014;7(4):430-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrras.2014.07.006. [27] Ahmed NK, El-Arabi A-GM. Natural radioactivity in farm soil and phosphate fertilizer and its environmental implications in Qena governorate, Upper Egypt. J Environ Radioact. 2005;84(1):51-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.04.007. [28] Karadeniz Ö, Yaprak G. Vertical distributions and gamma dose rates of 40 K, 232 Th, 238 U and 137 Cs in the selected forest soils in Izmir, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosim. 2008


The aim of the study was to assess the influence of lithological and pedogenic factors in the shaping of Cu, Ni and Zn distribution patterns in the profiles of Brunic Arenosols and Gleyic Podzols of the lower supra-flood terrace of the Słupia River, which is located outside the range of significant anthropogenic sources of pollution with these metals.

The contents of the investigated metals were analysed in aqua regia extracts of samples collected from three profiles of Brunic Arenosols, formed from river sands, and three profiles of Gleyic Podzols, formed from river sands transformed by eolian processes.

In general, river sands contained higher amounts of Ni and Zn (2.6 - 6.9 mg·kg-1 Ni; 10.3 - 16.2 mg·kg-1 Zn) compared to eolian sands (1.2 - 2.4 mg·kg-1 Ni; 3.3 - 17.3 mg·kg-1), while the content of copper tended to be higher in eolian sands (1.3 - 1.9 mg·kg-1) than river sands (0.1 - 1.5 mg·kg-1). The observed differences between the two types of sand are due to the loss of fine granulometric fractions and various minerals during eolian processes. Higher concentrations of the investigated metals in soil solum as compared to parent material are due to their uptake from deeper parts of the soil by roots and subsequent return to the soil surface as a component of litterfall. Therefore, the highest concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn were observed in ectohumus. In the mineral component of the soil, the highest concentrations were observed in organic matter-rich A and B horizons, which indicate close interactions between heavy metals, humic substances and iron oxides.

The vertical distribution of the investigated metals in the profiles of Gleyic Podzols indicates their leaching during podzolization. The observed contents of Cu, Ni and Zn, both in Brunic Arenosols and Gleyic Podzols, were lower than the geochemical background, which confirms that anthropogenic contamination of the studied area with these metals is marginal