New data on the distribution of dwarf ephemeral wetland vascular plant species and communities in western and north-western Poland
New phytosociological data are provided on Eleocharito-Caricetum bohemicae occurring on the easternmost range border in Central Europe. The distribution maps of selected character species of Eleocharito-Caricetum in Central Europe are presented.
The paper focuses on a research carried out during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a willow tree stand (Salix schwerinii × S. viminalis, variety Tordis) and a grass stand of miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter). Both of the species can be used for energy production. The evaluation was carried out in a research centre located in Kolíňany (Nitra district area, SW Slovakia). Biodiversity of the ground flora within the two crops stands was jointly assessed through the multivariate statistical method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results showed that almost all spontaneous vascular plant species have a weedy character, they have no specific environment requirements, they are stress tolerant, and their propagules are often present in agricultural ecosystems or in vegetation of rural landscape (field margins, strip boundaries, abandoned fields, orchards, etc.). Good examples of synanthropic species observed in the stands are Cirsium arvense, Equisetum arvense, Convolvulus arvensis etc., while several other typical species of usually non-synanthropic, habitats, e.g. Symphytum officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Calystegia sepium were also observed. Many juvenile shrub and wood species occurring in E1 and E2 layers also belonged to the semi-natural vegetation, e.g. Sambucus nigra, Rosa canina agg., Crataegus laevigata. The presence of potentially invasive and expansive plant species is evaluated as a negative factor.
Gdańsk Pomerania is a region characterized by unique physiographic features and diverse flora. This region, as many other areas, is subject to numerous accelerating transformations. The occurrence of numerous species on their range edges and on isolated stands, e.g. mountain and xerothermic grassland species, was an important criterion in the development of a regional red list of vascular plants of Gdańsk Pomerania (). On this list, 648 species of vascular plants, which constitute about 39% of the regional flora and 26% of all Polish flora, are considered to be endangered at various levels. In total, 47 species have been declared extinct in the aforementioned region (RE), 39 taxa are considered as critically endangered (CR) and 109 – as endangered (EN). Further 222 plant species are classified as vulnerable (moderately endangered) (VU), 124 have low risk categories (NT or LC) and there are 107 taxa of unknown threat, due to lack of sufficient information (DD). The aim of this work was to synthesize endangered components of Gdańsk Pomerania vascular plant flora for their better recognition and characterization. Among the species varying in threat degrees, the authors identified species protected by law and endangered in Poland as well as globally. In addition, the participation of species diagnostic of individual phytosociological units was verified. Also, the share of taxa representing various geographical elements was indicated.
A primary requirement for policy objectives is reliable figures on the composition of any region. Currently there is no comprehensive, definitive set of statistics for the British Uplands, hence the present paper. An overview of the background to the region is first provided, together with some examples of the available figures and a discussion of their limitations. The paper uses a formal structure, with landscapes at the highest level followed by habitats, then vegetation, and finally species, with exact definitions of the categories applied at all levels. The figures are produced from a survey of stratified, random one kilometre squares. The tables give comprehensive figures for Great Britain (GB) as a whole, and also England, Wales and Scotland.
The Uplands are shown to cover 38 % of the country. In terms of UK Broad Habitats, Bog is the most common overall (2062 k ha). It is estimated that 41 % of upland vegetation in Britain is grazed by sheep, and Cervus elephus (red deer) are particularly evident in Scotland. Walls (mainly drystone) are the most important linear feature (84 k km) but hedgerows (30 k km) are also widespread. The major vegetation classes are those linked to moorlands and bogs (about 25 %) but those associated with fertile soils are also common (10 %). In terms of species, Potentilla erecta (tormentil) is the most frequent species with four other acid grassland species in the top ten. Calluna vulgaris (ling heather) has the highest cover in Great Britain (14.8 %).
Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.
In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa) includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa), i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora). Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum) are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.
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The paper presents a regional red list of vascular plant species native to the Western Suwałki Lakeland, north-eastern Poland, based on the IUCN red list categories and criteria. The distribution and abundance data were obtained from the field floristic inventories carried out in 2008- 2016 using the ATPOL cartogram method. The historical occurrences of vascular plant species were revised in the field. The list comprises 203 species, including seven regionally extinct species, 43 critically endangered species, 49 endangered species, 25 vulnerable species, 48 near threatened species, and 31 data deficient species. The results are compared to the Polish national red list of pteridophytes and flowering plants and briefly discussed.