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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders with mainly mild cutaneous manifestations. Some patients with NF1, however, develop severe complications such as progressive optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. Due to potentially progressive and asymptomatic course of the disease, patients with NF1 require a regular multidisciplinary follow-up in coordination with various specialties and early intervention. In this article, we summarise our long-term experience with multidisciplinary follow-up of NF1 patients in the Centre for Neurofibromatosis Type 1 patients at the Children's University Hospital in Bratislava.


Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by protozoal haemoparasites of different Babesia species. Babesiosis is one of the most important globally extended and quickly spreading tick-borne infections of dogs. This comprehensive review gives an in-depth overview of Babesia species currently identified in dogs together with relevant vector tick species and their geographical distribution, life cycle and transmission of parasite. The main mechanisms in the pathogenesis of babesiosis are described and elucidated by recent literature overview. As Babesia infection causes a disease with very variable clinical manifestations, special attention is given to clinical signs, laboratory features and clinicopathological findings. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by microscopy, serological and molecular methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in mass spectrometry based assays. Accurate detection and species recognition are important for the selection of the appropriate therapy, monitoring and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Finally, guidelines for the treatment and prevention of canine babesiosis are given.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) involves autoimmune mechanisms that affect multiple systems and has variable clinical manifestations. It affects mainly feminine gender, usually of child-bearing age. Very late onset SLE (patients older than 75 years) is rarely met and difficult to diagnose due to the unspecific symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently mistaken for drug-induced SLE or for other age-specific disorders.

We present the case of a 78 years old male patient complaining of hemoptysis in small amounts, fever, dyspnea at small efforts, weight loss, and important asthenia. Based on physical examination, severe anemia and thoracic CT aspect, several diagnosis were taken into account: anemic syndrome and pleurisy due to refractory pneumonia, pulmonary neoplasm, pulmonary tuberculosis, congestive heart failure and Wegener granulomatosis. Only when direct Coombs test came positive and all the other serological tests resulted negative, diagnosis of SLE was considered. Confirmation came along with high titers of antinuclear antibodies, anti double strained DNA antibodies and lupic anticoagulant and low levels of C3c and C4.

We conclude that the diagnosis of SLE must be taken into consideration even in elder male patients. Therapeutic options in these patients are challenging because of the associated comorbidities and side effects.

test, the time was considered as a covariable and the changing pattern of each parameter was evaluated during the study. A paired samples t -test was used to determine the differences between two different time periods. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (SPSS for Windows, version 11.5, SPSS Inc, USA). Results by parameter are presented in Table 2 . Results Clinical variables Clinical manifestations observed after LPS administrations were depression, incoordination, tremors, rapid laboured breathing