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References Anderson, R.M. and May, R.M.(1990). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Arino, J.C., McCluskey, C. and van den Driessche P. (2003). Global results for an epidemic model with vaccination that exhibits backward bifurcation, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 64(1): 260-276. Blayneh, K.W., Gumel, A.B., Lenhart, S. and Clayton, T. (2010). Backward bifurcation and optimal control in transmission dynamics of West Nile Virus, Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 72(4): 1006-1028. Brauer, F. (2004). Backward

INTRODUCTION Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare immune disorder in which the immune system invades Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] The etiology of GBS is still unclear. Recent investigations demonstrated that GBS can be triggered by several respiratory tract and intestinal infections. A significant number of GBS cases were also inflicted by Zika virus infection. After a large-scale vaccination campaign in 1976 against swine influenza, an increase in the incidence of GBS was noticed and thus raising the doubts on the

., DiSogra, C., Sokolowski, J., Walker, D. K., Greby, S. M. (2015). Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel – United States, 2014–15 influenza season. MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly Rep. , 64 (36), 993–999. Cozza, V., Alfonsi, V., Rota, M. C., Paolini, V., Atti, M. L. C. (2015). Promotion of influenza vaccination among health care workers: Findings from a tertiary care children’s hospital in Italy. BMC Public Health , 15 , 697. Hagemeister, M. H., Stock, N. K., Ludwig, T., Heuschmann, P., Vogel, U. (2018). Self-reported influenza vaccination rates and

range of aMPV covers the whole globe except for Australia and Canada. Vaccination against TRT has been found effective when live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are used. Unfortunately, despite the commonness of vaccination, cases of TRT are frequently reported in poultry given the prophylactic because field strains can sometimes defeat post vaccination immunity ( 15 ). A large part of the turkey population in Poland comprises poults imported from Canada, which engenders a lack of specific anti-aMPV maternally derived antibodies (MDA) in that part of the domestic

) in post- exposure treatment. Indian J. Maternal and Child Health. 1996; 7:49-52. 5. Warell MJ, Warrell DA, Suntharasamai P, Nicholson KG, Chanthavanich P, Viravan C et al. Multisite intradermal rabies vaccination: Improoved economical regimens. Lancet. 1984; 1: 874-6. 10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91340-0 6. Warell MJ, Nicholson KG, Warrell DA, Suntharasamai P, Chanthavanich P, Viravan C et al. Economical multiple-site intradermal immunization with human diploid cell strain vaccine is effective for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. The Lancet. 1985; 1:1059-62. 10.1016/S

)00045-0 13. Khawplod P, Tantawichien T, Wilde H, Limusanno S, Tantawichien T, Saikasem A, et al. Use of rabies vaccine after reconstitution and storage. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34:404-6. 10.1086/324507 14. Khawplod P, Wilde H, Tantawichien T, Limusanno S, Tantawichien T, Mitmoonpitak C, et al. Potency, sterility and immunogenicity of rabies tissue culture vaccine after reconstituted refrigerated storage for one week. Vaccine. 2002; 20:2240-2 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00111-1 15. Kamoltham T, Khawplod P, Wilde H. Rabies intradermal post-exposure vaccination of humans using

of Poland of 2 April 1997 (Journal of Laws 1997 no. 78, item 483 as amended). The Act of 20 May 1971 the Code of Petty Offences i.e. Journal of Laws no. 2019 item 821). The Act of 6 November 2008 concerning patient’s rights and Patients’ Ombudsman (i.e. Journal of Laws 2017 item 1318). The Act of 5 December 2008 concerning preventing and fighting infections and contagious diseases in humans. (i.e. Journal of Laws 2016 item 1866 as amended). The regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 August 2011 concerning obligatory preventive vaccination (Journal of Laws no

REFERENCES 1. Adene, D. F., 2008: Poultry Health and Production: Principles and Practices . Ibadan, Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd., 3—11. 2. Ali, H. H., 2015: Study of serologic status of Newcastle disease in broiler chickens by hemagglutination inhibition test in Suliamania Province. Glob. J. Bio-Sci. Biotechnol. , 4, 4, 364—369. 3. Ambali, H. M., Nwoha, R. I. O., Abdu, P. A., 2017: Evaluation of antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination in chickens in some commercial farms in two Local Government Areas in Lagos State, Nigeria. J. Vet. Med. Surg

Introduction Young suckling calves have immature immune systems as evidenced by their lower numbers of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, which are responsible for humoral and cellular immunity ( 9 ). This was demonstrated by a weak antibody response to vaccination ( 16 ). Additionally, calves of Japanese Black cattle have a lower number of immune cells than other breeds and thus tend to be more susceptible to diseases compared to other cattle breeds ( 17 ). Histophilus somni is a common inhabitant bacterium of the upper respiratory tract of healthy cattle ( 2

sheep and goats brucellosis. Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia; No.59/2008: 2-13. 14. Food and Veterinary Agency of the Republic of Macedonia.Annual reports. Available at: 15. Stojmanovski Zh. Some epidemiological aspects of human brucellosis after introduction of sheep and goats vaccination.[In Macedonian]. Vox Medici. 2013; 78:235-8. 16. Minas A, Minas M, Stournara A, Tselepidis S: The "effects" of Rev-1 vaccination of sheep and goats on human brucellosis in Greece. Prev Vet Med. 2004; 64:41-47. 17. Russo G, Pasquali P, Nenova R et al