Seyedeh Nazanin Seyed Saadat, Fahimeh Mohammadghasemi, Sina Khajeh Jahromi, Mohammad Amin Homafar and Mostafa Haghiri
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Woo MM, Tai CJ, Kang SK, Nathwani PS, Pang SF, Leung PC. (2001). Direct action of melatonin in human granulosa-luteal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86: 4789-4797.
Yoo YM, Jeung EB. (2009). Melatonin-induced estrogen receptor alpha-mediated calbindin-D9k expression plays a role in H2O2-mediated cell
Seyran Yiğit, Yelda Dere, Hakan Yetimalar and Demet Etit
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Darko Marinković, Milan Aničić, Slobodanka Vakanjac, Svetlana Nedić and Vladimir Magaš
, D’haeseleer M, Simoens P: Proliferation patterns in the canine endometrium during the estrous cycle. Theriogenology. 2004, 62: 631-641
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6. Vermeirsch H, Simoens P, Lauwers H, Coryn M: Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen receptors in the canine uterus and their relation to sex steroid hormone levels. Theriogenology
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Marcin R. Tatara
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Van Winden S.C.L., Kupier R. (2003
J. Mihalik, P. Kravcukova, I. Hodorova, J. Vecanova and S. Rybarova
Activity of Monoamine Oxidases in Rat Female Genital Organs During Preimplantation Period of Pregnancy
Our objectives in the present study were to determine the activity of monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO AB) in rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during preimplantation period of pregnancy. It should help us to clarify and better understand possible involvement of both MAO enzymes in the reproductive process. Pregnant females were killed employing a lethal dose of thiopental on the first (D1), on the third (D3), and on the fifth (D5) days of pregnancy. Rats were perfused transcardially with the PBS to rinse out of the body as much blood as possible. Ovaries, oviducts and uteri were immediately removed and stored until the measurement was done. MAO activity was determined by fluorescent monoamine oxidase detection kit. In the ovaries we have found the highest MAO activity at D3, followed by D1, and the lowest levels were recorded at D5 of pregnancy. In the oviducts, the highest MAO activity was detected again at D3, followed by D5, and by D1 of pregnancy. But statistical analysis did not reveal any difference between individual days of pregnancy nor in the ovaries, neither in uterine tubes. Uteri were the only organs, in which statistically significant differences were detected (p<0.001). The highest activity of MAO was observed at D5, followed by D1, and by D3 of pregnancy. Potential mechanisms responsible for the changed MAO activity in gonads during preimplantation period of pregnancy are proposed.
Yetkin Ağaçkıran, Göktürk Fındık, Leyla N. Üstün, Koray Aydoğdu and Sadi Kaya
1. Kayser K, Zink S, Schneider T, Dienemann H, André S, Kaltner H, Schüring MP, Zick Y, Gabius HJ. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma of the uterus: Documentation of clinical,immunohistochemical and lectin-histochemical data of ten cases. Virchows Arch. 2000;37:284-92.
2. Galvin SD, Wademan B, Chu J, Bunton RW. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: A rare metastatic lesion in the right ventricle. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89: 279-81.
3. Jo JH, Lee JH, Kim DC, Kim SH, Kwon HC, Kim JS, Kim HJ. A case of benign
Aishah Alamrani, Saeed Mahmoud and Mohammed Alotaibi
Labor is a complex process characterized by coordinated strong and progressive uterine activity until the neonate or baby is delivered. The mechanisms underlying the transition from uterine quiescence during pregnancy into a fully active contracting uterus are not fully understood. Normal human pregnancy lasts for 40 weeks and when a neonate is delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, it is considered as a preterm birth. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 15 million babies are born preterm (before completing 37 weeks in utero) every year in
Manfred Schmitt, Viktor Magdolen, Feng Yang, Marion Kiechle, Jane Bayani, George M. Yousef, Andreas Scorilas, Eleftherios P. Diamandis and Julia Dorn
Background. Tumor tissue-associated KLKs (kallikrein-related peptidases) are clinically important biomarkers that may allow prognosis of the cancer disease and/or prediction of response/failure of cancer patients to cancerdirected drugs. Regarding the female/male reproductive tract, remarkably, all of the fifteen KLKs are expressed in the normal prostate, breast, cervix uteri, and the testis, whereas the uterus/endometrium and the ovary are expressing a limited number of KLKs only.
Conclusions. Most of the information regarding elevated expression of KLKs in tumor-affected organs is available for ovarian cancer; depicting them as valuable biomarkers in the cancerous phenotype. In contrast, for breast cancer, a series of KLKs was found to be downregulated. However, in breast cancer, KLK4 is elevated which is also true for ovarian and prostate cancer. In such cases, selective synthetic KLK inhibitors that aim at blocking the proteolytic activities of certain KLKs may serve as future candidate therapeutic drugs to interfere with tumor progression and metastasis.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Krzysztof Kostro, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Leszek Krakowski
The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48) were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75) were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26). When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11). In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71), and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium
Michał Dzięcioł, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Katarzyna Michlik, Wojciech Niżański and Grzegorz Dejneka
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany). Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals). A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.