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References [1]. R.P. Pogorilyi, I.V. Melnyk, Y.L. Zub, G.A. Seisenbaeva, V.G. Kessler, Enzyme immobilization on a nanoadsorbent for improved stability against heavy metal poisoning, Colloids Surf. B 144 (2016) 135-142. [2]. G. Pozniak, B. Krajewska, W. Trochimczuk, Urease immobilized on modified polysulphone membrane: Preparation and properties, Biomaterials 16 (1995) 129-134. [3]. A.K. De Brito, C.S. Nordi, L. Caseli, Algal polysaccharides as matrices for the immobilization of urease in lipid ultrathin films studied with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy

References Abdoun K., Stumpff F., Martens H. (2006). Ammonia and urea transport across the rumen epithelium:areview. Anim. Health Res. Rev., 7: 43-59. Abdoun K., Stumpff F., Rabbani I., Martens H. (2010). Modulation of urea transport across sheep rumen epithelium in vitro by SCFAand CO2. Am. J. Physiol.-Gastr. L., 298: G190-G202. Armbruster C.E., Smith S.N., Yep A., Mobley H.L. (2014). Increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia during Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii coinfection due to synergistic induction of urease activity. J. Infect Dis


Urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. The increase in pH from the urease reaction causes a broad range of deleterious effects. Nanoceria (cerium oxide) possesses unique chemical properties under a redox reaction. This study investigated the synthesis of nanoceria via a hydrothermal method and determined its interaction with urease enzyme.

Transmission electron microscopy results showed a cubic-figured nanoceria with a size of ~15 nm. Urease was immobilized on nanoceria through adsorption. The maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis constant (K m) of the free urease and urease immobilized on nanoceria decreased after interaction with nanoceria, and the Lineweaver-Burk plot showed an uncompetitive inhibition. The thermodynamic study of the adsorption process showed an endothermic reaction. The interaction changed the secondary and tertiary structures of urease as demonstrated by the circular dichroism study (the decrease in both α- and β-structure percentages). The fluorescence study revealed a change in the tertiary structure. The FTIR for the nanoceria—urease complex showed no changes in the covalent bonds, which indicated the involvement of physical forces in the interaction between urease and nanoceria.

., Kundu S., Srisignificantva A.K., Gupta S.M. 2010. Long term effects of fertilization on carbon and nitrogen sequestration and aggregate associated carbon and nitrogen in the Indian sub-Himalayas. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 86: 1–16. DOI 10.1007/s10705-009-9270-y. Błońska E., Lasota J., Gruba P. 2016. Effect of temperate forest tree species on soil dehydrogenase and urease activities in relation to Rother properties of soil derived from less and galciofluvial sand. Ecological Research 31(5): 655–664. DOI 10.1007/s11284-016-1375-6. Brożek S., Lasota J

M, Antonius S, Sulistinah N. Phosphatase and urease instability caused by pesticides present in soil improved by grounded rice straw. J Agric Biol Sci. 2009;4(2):56-62. [8] Singh DK, Kumar S. Nitrate reductase, arginine deaminase, urease and dehydrogenase activities in natural soil (ridges with forest) and in cotton soil after acetamiprid treatments. Chemosphere. 2008;71:412-418. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.005. [9] Carter MR. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. London: Canadian Soc Soil Sci, Lewis Publishers; 1993. [10] Nelson DW, Sommers LE. Total

Helicobacter pylori infection acquired in early childhood increases the risk of H. pylori -related complications later in life, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and chronic abdominal pain. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is higher in developing countries than that in developed countries. In Thailand, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is 15%–20% that increases with age [ 1 ]. Diagnostic procedures are composed of the tissue biopsies from esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for the rapid urease test (RUT) and histopathology test. One of


The aim of the study was to describe biochemical reactions in the soil based on the activity of urease and dehydrogenases in Scots pine stands damaged during and differentially managed after hurricanes. Soil enzymatic activity was investigated in 2005 and again in 2013 for selected stands in the Pisz Forest District where wind damage occurred in 2002. Most of the damaged stands were cut down and replanted, but 445 ha were left untouched for study purposes. The investigated areas differed with respect to stand damage and management. The enzymatic activity correlated well with the content of organic matter which was higher in organic than in mineral soils. In the area left to regenerate naturally, dehydrogenase and urease activity was higher in 2013 compared to 2005, which suggests the improvement of site conditions. The values of the examined biochemical parameters were correlated with the type of forest regeneration, with the forest soil regeneration being higher in artificially than in naturally regenerated stands. Changes of soil enzymatic activity were correlated with the level of stand damage and the type of management after wind damage.

), representing the increase in biomass in the applied nitrogen unit in the soil. Moreover, Arregui and Quemada (2008) reported that NAE is important because it promotes the use of nitrogen fertilizers in plant growth, without adverse environmental effects. According to Mullen (2011) , nitrogen fertilizer should be applied almost a month before planting sweet potatoes to assure the most efficient use of nitrogen by the crop and reduce the losses caused by volatilisation and denitrification procedures. Urease inhibitor (UI), N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), and the

. (eds.). New Edition, Youken-dou, Tokyo (in Japanese). Hungria, M., Franchini, J. C., Brandao-Junior, O., Kaschuk, G., Souza, R. A. (2009). Soil microbial activity and crop sustainability in a long-term exper­iment with three soil-tillage and two crop-rotation systems. Appl. Soil Ecol, 42, 288-296. Kandeler, E., Gerber, H. (1988). Short-term assay of soil urease activity us­ing colorimetric determination of ammonium. Biol. Fertility Soils, 6, 68-72. Lagomarsino, A., Moscatelli, M. C., Di Tizio, A., Mancinelli, R., Grego, S., Marinari, S. (2009). Soil biochemical

-933. Zantua M., Bremner J.M. 1977. Stability of urease in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 9, 135-140.