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Effect of Urea Fertilizer and Maize Cob Ash on Soil Chemical Properties, Growth, Yield, and Mineral Composition of Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) MOENCH

Abstract

Field experiments were carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria, in the cropping seasons of 2015 and 2016. The soil at the site of the experiment is an Alfisol classified as an Oxichaplustalf or a Luvisol. The trial consisted of sole and combined applications of urea fertilizer (U) applied at 0, 60, and 120 kg·ha−1 and maize cob ash (M) applied at 0, 3, and 6 t·ha−1. The results showed that U and M alone or in combinations increased the soil chemical properties, growth, yield, and mineral composition of okra compared with the control. M alone at 3 t·ha−1 produced optimum soil chemical properties, yield, and mineral composition of okra fruit. U alone at 60 kg·ha−1 produced optimum yield of okra, while growth and mineral composition were increased when urea fertilizer was applied at 120 kg·ha−1. The treatment with U applied at 60 kg·ha−1 in combination with M applied at 3 t·ha−1 (U60M3) produced the highest values of okra yield, while U applied at 120 kg·ha−1 in combination with M applied at 3 t·ha−1 (U120M3) has the highest growth and highest N, K, Ca, Cu, and Fe contents of okra fruit. Compared with the control and using the mean of the two years, U60M3 increased okra fruit yield by 93.3%. Therefore, for viable production of okra in low nutrient soil of the Nigeria derived savanna or similar soils elsewhere, 60 kg·ha−1 U + 3 t·ha−1 M (U60M3) is recommended. However, for improved mineral quality of okra, 120 kg·ha−1 U + 3 t·ha−1 M (U120M3) is recommended.

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A field-based comparison of ammonia emissions from six Irish soil types following urea fertiliser application

under the National Emission Ceilings Directive ( European Commission, 2001 ). Meeting these ceiling obligations presents a challenge for Irish agriculture, which accounts for 98% of national NH 3 emissions. NH 3 emissions from urea fertiliser on grassland in Ireland and the UK have been found to be quite variable, ranging from 8 to 68% of applied N ( Chambers and Dampney, 2009 ; Forrestal et al ., 2015 ) and may be due to differences in temperature, precipitation and wind speed following urea application ( Black et al ., 1987 ; Hatch et al ., 1990 ; Sommer

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Effects of Metal Oxides and Urea Fertilizer on Agronomic Traits of Safflower

Abstract

In Mediterranean semi-arid regions major constraints impinging on agricultural development are deficiency of water and nutrient depleted soils. The problem of enhancing crop yield in these areas is widely distinguished as a challenge. In order to evaluate the integrated application of urea fertilizer (0, 160, and 320 kg ha−1) and nano-metal oxide (Fe2O3, ZnO, and CuO) on safflower growth performance, a field experiment was carried out in the Baneh district, a semi-arid region in Western Iran. Urea fertilizer significantly increased the plant height (11%), canopy width (8%), ground cover percentage (6%), plant dry weight (35%), number of secondary branches (16%), seeds number per head (19%), and total seed yield (38%). However, the higher application of urea fertilizer resulted in a significant decrease in wrinkled seed percentage (3.25%), harvest index (2.62%), and thousand seed weight (2.67%). Also, nano-metal oxides significantly affected morphological traits and yield components. Mean comparison revealed that the best performance was obtained by the integrated application of 320 kg urea fertilizer and nano-Fe or nano-Zn. Overall, the present research highlighted the necessity of balanced and integrated application of macronutrients and micronutrient fertilizers for sustainable safflower production in semi-arid regions of Western Iran.

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Ethylcellulose as a coating material in controlled-release fertilizers

. & Thanh, T.H., (2014). Review on materials and methods to produce controlled release coated urea fertilizer. J. Controlled Release 181, 11–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.02.020 22. Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO). (1997). Official Publication No. 50, T-29. West Lafayette, IN, USA: AAPFCO. 23. Liu, G., Zotarelli, L., Li, Y., Dinkins, D., Wang, Q. & Ozores-Hampton, M. (2014). Controlled-Release and Slow Fertilizers as Nutrient Management Tools, Florida, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension, USA

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Environmental impact of fertilizer use and slow release of mineral nutrients as a response to this challenge

, C., Young, S. & Arizal, R. (1987). Rubber matrix for the slow release of urea fertilizer. Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem. 28, 94–96. 51. Hepburn, C. & Arizal, R. (1988). Slow-release fertilizers based on natural rubber. Br. Polym. J. 20(6), 487–491. DOI: 10.1002/pi.4980200605. 52. Hepburn, C. & Arizal, R. (1989). A controlled-release urea fertilizer. Part 1: The encapsulation of urea fertilizer by rubber: processing and vulcanization procedures, Plast. Rubber Compos. Process. Appl. 12(3), 129–134. 53. Hepburn, C. & Arizal, R. (1989). A

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Controlled release fertilizers

utilization of conventional agrochemicals by controlled release formulations, Mater. Sci. Eng. , 1996, C4, 83. Hepburn C., Young S., Arizal R. Rubber matrix for the slow release of urea fertilizer, Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Polym. Chem. , 1987, 28(28), 94. Al-Zachrani S. M. Controlled-release of fertilizers: modeling and simulation, Inter. J. Eng. Sci. , 1999, 37, 1299. Shaviv A., Raban S., Zaidel E. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single

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Effects of Neem Seed Cake and NPK Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

). Crop experiments to increase the efficacy of urea fertilizer nitrogen by neem by-products. Proceeding of 2nd International Neem Conference. Germany, pp. 507-518. Langham, R. & Wiermeers, T. (2006). Sesame production information. Sesame Production in Texas. Htm, 1-17. Lokanadhan, S., Muthukrishnan, P. & Jeyaraman, S. (2012). Neem products and their agricultural applications. JBiopest, 5 (Supplementary): 72-76. Malik, A.M., Salem, M.F., M.A. Cheema, M.A. & Ahmed, S. (2003). Influence of nitrogen levels on productivity of sesame ( Sesamum

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Controlled-release urea encapsulated by ethyl cellulose/butyl acrylate/vinyl acetate hybrid latex

.09.003. 8. Cruz, D.F., Bortoletto-Santos, R., Guimarães, G.G.F., Polito, W.L. & Ribeiro, C. (2017). Role of polymeric coating on the phosphate availability as a fertilizer: insight from phosphate release by castor polyurethane coatings. J. Agric. Food Chem. 65(29), 5890-5895. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01686. 9. Yang, Y.C., Tong, Z.H., Geng, Y.Q., Li, Y.C. & Zhang, M. (2013). Biobased polymer composites derived from corn stover and feather meals as double-coating materials for controlled- release and water-retention urea fertilizers. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61

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Assessment of various practices of the mitigation of N2O emissions from the arable soils of Poland

denitrification: progress towards the understanding of this interaction over the last 50 years. European Journal of Soil Science 53: 345-354. Schulte-Bisping H., Brume R., 2003. Nitrous oxide emission inventory of German forest soil. Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (D4, 4132): 1-9. Singh J., Kunhikrishnan A., Bolan N.S., Saggar S., 2013. Impact of urease inhibitor on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from temperate pasture soil cores receiving urea fertilizer and cattle urine. Science of the Total Environment 465: 56

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The interactive effects of various nitrogen fertiliser formulations applied to urine patches on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland

) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], or nitrification (e.g. dicyandiamide, DCD) inhibitors to urine patches. While NBPT inhibits hydrolysis of urea to ammonium ( N H 4 + $\begin{array}{} \displaystyle \rm NH_4\,^+ \end{array} $ -N), hence mitigating NH 3 loss from urea fertiliser ( Forrestal et al ., 2016 ), DCD delays the bacterial oxidation of N H 4 + $\begin{array}{} \displaystyle \rm NH_4\,^+ \end{array} $ -N into N O 3 − $\begin{array}{} \displaystyle \rm NO_3\,^- \end{array} $ N, which reduces denitrification and leaching losses ( Halvorson et al ., 2014

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