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surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy. Vol. 70. Iss. 3 p. 295–310. A rabi R., S hahidan M.F., K amal M.M., J aafar M.F.Z.B., R akhshandehroo M. 2015. Mitigating urban heat island through green roofs. Current World Environment. Vol. 10. Sp. iss. 1 p. 918–927. F eng Y., W ang P., W u Z. 2013. Research on the ecological effects for different types of green roofs in Chongqing. Journal of South China Agricultural University. Vol. 7. Iss. 12 p. 17–28. G rimmond S. 2007. Urbanization and global environmental

Agricultural landscape, heritage and identity in peri-urban areas in Western Europe

This work focuses on particularly sensitive agricultural landscapes, which are visible in peri-urban areas. These territories are indeed fast evolving areas that consist of a "third-area", both urban and rural. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role played by heritage in agricultural landscapes of peri-urban areas. The paper is built around these following questions: what are the changes in agricultural landscapes in the framework of the fast urban sprawl, and what are their effects on practices, especially around heritage, and on the many stakeholders' perceptions? With the help of visuals like aerial or ground pictures, maps, diagrams, interviews, this paper uses a panel of specific examples selected in Western Europe. A wide range of peri-urban situations has been chosen to show the different kinds of existing urban pressure on agricultural landscapes.

Abstract

The article discusses the practical aspect of implementation of the idea of sustainable development in the EU Cohesion Policy in the 2014-2020 programming period in Poland. The objective of the study is to determine the relations between the idea of sustainable development and instruments of its implementation, and the identification of the scope of influence of Cohesion Policy tools on sustainable development of functional urban areas (FUA). The paper presents the author’s set of sustainable development indicators (SDI) and relevant analyses of their implementation in the financial and spatial aspect in 26 FUAs. Detailed analyses covered one of the new instruments of territorial development, namely Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). The paper provides evidence which proves that the dominant sphere in the financial and spatial support is the modernisation of transport and energy engineering infrastructure, with potentially multiple effects, as well as the development of a structurally diverse labour market. The least support is provided to the strengthening of integrated management. The tested approach is applicable in reference to other functional areas in the EU. It can contribute to the determination of the extent to which the implementation of the Cohesion Policy supports sustainable development of cities and their functional areas. The application of SDI contributed to the understanding of the process in reality.

, Problemy Ekorozwoju - Problems of sustainable development, 7, 2, 87-96. 5. Januchta-Szostak A., 2011 ‒ Water in urban public space, Model forms of management of rainwater and surface Walters, Wyd. Politechnika Poznańska, 91-110. (in Polish) 6. Januchta-Szostak A., 2013 ‒ Water ecosystems service in urban areas, in Bergier J. and Kronenberg J., (eds), Sustainable development - applications, Wyd Fund, Sendzimira Kraków, 3, 89-110. (in Polish) 7. Kuczyńska-Kippen N., Nowosad P. and Grzegorz G., 2004 ‒ The assessment of water quality of lakes in the Wielkopolski National

Abstract

Bioretention basins/rain garden is a very suitable low-impact development (LID) practice for storm water management around the globe. By using this practice in urban areas, flash flooding problems can be decreased and the environment of an area can be improved. The concept of bioretention was introduced a few decades ago and has been proven to be the best management practice (BMP) for storm water in urban areas. Due to urbanisation, natural surface areas are converted into hard surfaces such as roads, through which water cannot infiltrate into the ground. Due to this, infiltration decreases and surface run-off increases, which causes depletion of ground water continuously. In this study, we mainly explain the bioretention concept and its function as derived from different studies. This review includes different scientists’ results for the performance of the bioretention system at different locations. A summary of the research findings by different scientists on the performance of bioretention systems is also provided, including the hydrologic and water quality performances. Finally, future work necessary to enhance the performance and widespread use of bioretention systems is also explained.

1 Introduction Land and urban management require detecting changes in topography and urban areas. Topography changes in rural areas are generally the results of natural processes such as landslides, earthquakes, coastal erosion de- or afforestation. Urban changes consist of new constructions, extensions, destructions, excavation work and earth fill formed by natural or human effects. Change detection in urban areas is essential for planning, management, building and discovering unauthorized construction activities. In addition, the results of earthquakes can be

, 32 pp. C eľuch M. & Š evčík M., 2006a: First record of Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera) from Slovakia. Biológia , Bratislava , 61 : 637–638. C eľuch M. & Š evčík M., 2006b: Koľko druhov netopierov u nás skutočne žije? Zamyslenie nad novými nálezmi. Vespertlio , 9–10 : 239. C eľuch M., D anko Š. & K aňuch P., 2006: On urbanisation of Nyctalus noctula and Pipistrellus pygmaeus in Slovakia. Vespertilio , 9–10 : 219–221. C eľuch M. & K aňuch P., 2005: Winter activity and roosts of the noctule ( Nyctalus noctula ) in the urban area (Central

-based measurements in Portland, Oregon. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-938. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 2016. www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/51076 . [4] Aničić M, Tasić M, Frontasyeva MV, Tomašević M, Rajšić S, Strelkova LP, et al. Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss: a case study in an urban area. Environ Chem Lett. 2009;7(1):55-60. DOI: 10.1007/s10311-008-0135-4. [5] Giordano S, Adamo P, Sorbo S, Vingiani S. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

Diversity of the Mesostigmata (Acari) in tree-hollows of selected deciduous tree species

Rich gamasid communities were found in tree-hollows of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata), and white willow (Salix alba) in urban and rural areas in northern Poland (Bydgoszcz and its environs). We recorded there 93 gamasid species of 21 families in a total of 18 tree-hollows. Differences in the dominance structure of gamasid communities at the levels of family and species indicated dissimilarities in the mite communities, depending on tree species and intensity of human impact. The chestnut tree-hollows in both areas were dominated by mites of the family Urodinychidae (with the dominant Uroobovella pyriformis in both cases). The lime tree-hollows were colonized mostly by the Trematuridae (Trichuropoda ovalis) and the Digamasellidae (Dendrolaelaps tenuipilus) in the rural area, whereas by the Ascidae (Iphidozercon gibbus) in the city. The gamasid communities of willow hollows were dominated by the Trematuridae (Trichouropoda ovalis) in the urban area, and by the Digamasellidae (Dendrolaelaps longifallax, D. zwoelferi) in the rural area. Some rare species (e.g. Microgynium rectangulatum or Microsejus truncicola) were also recorded, mostly in the rural area.

Introduction The contemporary model of transportation systems in urban areas is generally based on two main pillars: systems of collective means of transportation for massive, public use and secondly: individually owned private cars. There are additional means of transportation such as taxi cabs and other ones also referred to as alternative, but these are of much lower significance. Each of the two main kinds of means of transportation has its well known pros and cons. Public transportation means dominated from about the mid-19 th century until about the middle