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University and college graduates do not represent just a highly skilled workforce. They are holders of a high level of education and they serve also as a component of human capital that have a high potential for increase productivity, create new jobs and discover new innovative production processes. This contribution deals with the concentration and dispersion of the production of university and college graduates of master level studies in Slovak cities, as holders of a high level of human capital. Examined were 41 of 46 fields of master level studies, which were assigned to 6 groups of studies. Within the overall production of graduates, there was observed a dispersion of production, because during the observed time period, between 1997 and 2015, the competition between cities in generating graduates of master level studies has increased. Within the production of individual groups of studies, the evolution was not so clear. In some groups of studies, the production of master level graduates has concentrated over the observed period time, in other groups the production has dispersed and in one group of studies the situation has not changed.


The paper attempts to present a comprehensive picture of the main characteristics of Romanian university-educated youths in their journey to employment. The persisting demographic decline and significant labor shortages point out to the importance of having an effective transition from school to work (as reflected in several Europe 2020 policy targets) so that youth and young adult cohorts are able to contribute to the Romanian economy to the full extent of their abilities. Analysis of the latest data available reveals that Romanian university graduates’ path to employment often involves a complete switch from study to work. Despite a lack of previous work experience, they enjoy high employment rates, relatively long job tenure that starts on, or shortly after, graduation, and have jobs that match their education. They also tend to be proactive in their job search and over 90% are not willing to change residence in order to start employment. Inactivity patterns that consider both work and education, and early leavers from education show significant fluctuations during the economic cycle. Results indicate the strong and weak areas with respect to labor market integration of youths and young adults, and can provide a starting point for policies to optimize their successful integration. It also points out to potential research areas to address key aspects of transitions from school to work that may clarify unsolved issues and guide effective policy interventions.


Objective: The main purpose of this research is to analyze and reveal if the recent policy measures in higher education carried in European Union member countries have had a significant impact on the labour market integration of university graduates.

Methodology: We selected a set of indicators that were common in the 2015 and 2016 editions of Structural Indicators for Monitoring Education and Training Systems in Europe and could offer an image of intensity of higher education policies in relation with labour market at European level. We further used these measures to test for any significant effects of the policies on the integration of graduates in the labour market.

Findings: We found significant effects of various policy measures in high education in the European countries. We estimate a positive role for factors like monitoring of completion rates, requirements for the staff to have higher education, presence of educational guidelines, and recognition of formal and informal learning for entry in higher education.

Value Added: This is the first study to address the impact of high education policies carried in European countries on the integration of college graduates. The study is distinct through both the design of new measures of higher education policy in Europe as well through testing whether the intensity of policies carried for higher education has affected the employability of young graduates or not.

Recommendations: The results of this empirical research allow us to make some recommendations for improving the insertion of young graduates on European labour market.

Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations. Journal of Economic Literature 55(3): 789–865. Blinder, Alan S. 1973. Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates. The Journal of Human Resources 8(4): 436–455. Braakmann, Nils. 2010. The Role of Psychological Traits for the Gender Gap in Employment and Wages: Evidence from Germany. DIW Discussions Paper, German Institute of Economic Research (DIW), Berlin . Braakmann, Nils. 2013. What Determines Wage Inequality Among Young German University Graduates? Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik 233


Der Beitrag thematisiert den Berufsalltag österreichischer AkademikerInnen mit Migrationshintergrund. Anhand von 21 problemzentrierten Interviews wurde der Frage nachgegangen, welche Ausgrenzungs- und Diskriminierungserfahrungen AkademikerInnen mit Migrationshintergrund nach dem Ende ihres Universitätsstudiums auf dem Arbeitsmarkt machen und wie sie mit diesen umgehen. Für die Auswertungen der Interviews haben wir eine Themenanalyse mit einem Codierverfahren kombiniert. Empirisch zeigt sich in unserer Studie, dass AkademikerInnen mit Migrationshintergrund häufig Fähigkeiten aufgrund ihres Migrationshintergrundes abgesprochen werden und Konflikte entlang religiöser, ethnischer oder stereotyper Zuschreibungen entstehen. Die Bewältigungsstrategien der Betroffenen changieren zwischen Prävention von Diskriminierung - durch betonte Leistungsbereitschaft und Distanzierung von prekären Situationen - und Reaktion auf Diskriminierung - wie aktive Gegenwehr und Formen der Resignation.


Predicting the population size of a city is one of the key tasks preceding the creation of city development plans, seeing as how urban space management should be adequate to current and forecasted economic and social trends, including demographic ones. In many cities of the world, apart from capitals and metropolises, the phenomenon of depopulation and shrinking has been observed, which is due to a decrease in the fertility rate and a negative migration balance. Apart from the inhabitants registered in the city for permanent residence, there are also people living there temporary, including students. Some graduates will decide to stay in the city, thus increasing the population of the city’s residents.

The purpose of the study described in this article was to attempt to determine the extent to which new-coming students are able to alleviate the effects of the adverse phenomenon of city depopulation. The city chosen as the research area - Olsztyn - has been experiencing the loss of residents for 10 years and is also the largest university center in the province. Understanding settlement / migration plans required a broad survey. As a result, it was concluded that the impact of graduates on inhibiting depopulation is relatively small as most of them planned to move out to a larger urban center, and only every fifth one declared a willingness to live in Olsztyn. Retaining graduates would require the development of the labor market towards new, well-paid jobs.


The aim of the current study is to examine the program of pronunciation training and its implementation from a new perspective, which is that of MA graduates. The data were obtained from 65 graduates of the Faculty of English at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań by means of an online survey. The research questions posed in the study explore the matter of taught models and varieties of English, materials, teaching, and opinions regarding the accent the participants received. By providing a new perspective on the teaching and learning of pronunciation the study might help university teachers to enhance the pronunciation courses in their institutions.


Competency-based education is a new trend in the process of teaching to support and develop the com­petencies of graduates. This challenge of the European Union aimed at changes in learning processes contrib­utes to improvement in the educational qualifications of the population. Recently, in Europe and Slovakia, several research studies aimed at key competencies of graduates have been conducted. This paper provides the results of the study aimed at identification of key competencies of graduates of the study program Construction Technology and Management. A proposal for innovations in learning forms is presented as an output of the national project “Universities as Engines of Knowledge Society Development”. The innovations will influence the development of profes­sion-specific and transferable competencies of graduates of the aforementioned study program at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Technical University of Košice, Slovakia.

References Allen, J. and Van der Velden, R., 2007: Transition from higher education to work. In: Teichler, U. editor, Careers of University Graduates , Netherlands, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 55-78. Bielecki, P., 2008: Status absolwentów na rynku pracy (Position of graduates on the labour market – in Polish). In: Minkiewicz, B., Błędowski P. editors, Absolwenci SGH na rynku pracy , Warszawa: Wyd. SGH, pp. 89-105. Ćwiąkalska, M., Hojda, P. and Ostrowska-Zakrzewska, M., 2011: Losy zawodowe absolwentów Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego (Professional careers of

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