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Bose K., S. Biswas, S. Bisai, S. Ganguli, A. Khatun, et al., 2007, Stunting, underweight and wasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3-5 years of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India
Biljana Trpkovska, Dobrila Lazarova, Andja. Strateska, Biljana Zafirova and Elizabeta Čadikovska
The aim of this research is to present body mass index (BMI) data in children 3-5 years of age from Skopje and provide the information on the prevalence of different categories of nutritional status during the early childhood.
Material and methods: The study included 420 preschool children (210 boys and 210 girls). Stature and body weight were measured, and the BMI value was calculated. Twelve anthropometric parameters were measured using standard equipment and measurement technique according to the International Biological Programme.
Results: The majority of anthropometrical parameters have shown significant age and sex specific differences in favor of male subjects. Values at the 50th percentile in our male subjects aged 3, 4 and 5 years for the weight-for-age index were 19 kg, 19.1 and 21 kg, respectively whereas in the female subjects the corresponding values were 16.8 kg, 20 kg and 21 kg. The height-for-age index values corresponding to the 50th percentile showed slightly higher values in our male subjects (100 cm, 109.5 cm and 116 cm) than those in our female subjects (102 cm, 108.5 cm and 116 cm). The values of 50th percentile of BMI in our males subjects were 18.1 kg/m², 16.2 kg/m² and 16 kg/m² whereas in our females were 16.5 kg/m², 16.7 kg/m² and 16.4 kg/m².
Conclusion: These results show that underweight is a health problem of the rising generation in Skopje and needs to be considered along with the problem of overweight. It is recommended that the detected values could be applied for evaluation of deviations in growth and nutritional status in children aged 3-5.
Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Jackson I. Ikuren and Rita C. Onyiriuka
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Sadaruddin Biswas, Som Prasad Giri and Kaushik Bose
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Bose K, Biswas S, Bisai S, Ganguli S, Khatun A, Mukhopadhyay A, Bhadra M. 2007. Stunting, underweight and wasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3–5 years of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Matern Child Nutr 3:216–21.
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Sylwia Trambacz-Oleszak, Alicja Krzyżaniak, Ineza Szafrańska-Komarowska and Maria Kaczmarek
overweight, obesity and underweight among Polish children and adolescents. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego 15:258-65.
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Inchley J, Currie D, Young T
Tribal population of India constitutes 8.6% of the total population. They are more susceptible to undernutrition which is recognized as a prevalent health problem mainly because of their uncertainty of food supply, which has serious long term consequences for the child and adversely influences the development of the nation. The assessment of nutritional status is paramount importance because it impels to identify malnutrition which is an aggravation of morbidity and mortality. This review was aimed to find out the overall nutritional status of tribal preschool children. It also seek the major socio-cultural causes which influence the nutritional status from bio-cultural perspectives among the tribal children in India in order to make foundation of new research. In the present review, 41 papers on nutritional status of tribal preschool children published from January 1st 2000 till date, have been identified and included for analysis. To analyze the data, meta-analysis was done using MedCalc software.
The meta-analysis revealed the average rate of prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting among the preschool tribal children of India was 42.96%; 44.82% and 23.69%. Among the 41 different studies these rates vary among the different tribal groups of different states associated with their socio-economic status (10%), their cultures of food consumption (10%), maternal education (15%), child feeding practices (20%), dietary deficit during pregnancy (25%) and poor nutrition of the child (52%).
Prevalence rate of under-nutrition and stunting is relatively high in comparison to WHO in India whereas, rate of wasting was lower in comparison to national level which reflect that immediate nutritional status was poor but chronic deficiency of nutrition was less. Nutritional education and short term appropriately planned nutritional intervention programs may also be useful for enhancing their nutritional status.
Study aim: The aim of this study to determine whether creatine ethyl ester (CEE) supplementation combined with resistance training (RT) is effective for improving hormonal changes, body composition and muscle strength in underweight non-athlete men.
Materials and methods: Sixteen underweight non-athlete men participated in this double-blind study and were randomly assigned to one of two groups: RT with placebo (RT + PL, n = 8) and RT with CEE supplementation (RT + CEE, n = 8). The participants performed 6 weeks of RT (60–80% 1RM) combined with CEE or PL. 48 hours before and after the training period, muscle strength (1RM for leg press and bench press), body composition (percentage of body fat, circumference measurements of the arm and thigh), serum levels of testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone (GH) of the participant were measurements.
Results: Significant increases were observed for weight, muscle strength and muscle mass, serum levels of testosterone and GH between pre and post-test in the RT + CEE group (p < 0.05). In addition, cortisol level was significantly decreased in the post-test in the RT+CEE group. The decrease in fat percent was greater in the RT + PL group than in the RT + CEE group (%change = –6.78 vs. –0.76, respectively). Weight and leg strength changes in the RT + CEE group were significant compared to the RT + PL group (p < 0.001, p = 0.05, p = 0.001; respectively). However, in other variables, despite the increase of GH and testosterone levels and lower levels of cortisol in the RT + CEE group, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: It seems that the consumption of CEE combined with RT can have significant effects on body weight and leg strength in underweight non-athlete men. This supplement may provide a potential nutritional intervention to promote body weight in underweight men.
Several studies have indicated that the prevalence of unhealthy body weight in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high. It is unclear whether factors related to the weight status of children and adolescents with ASD are the same or different from factors associated with the weight status of typically developing children (TDC). The objective of this review was to identify key factors associated with the higher rates of unhealthy weight observed in individuals with ASD and create a structural model, which could be used for future autism intervention research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the genetic basis of obesity in ASD, special treatment (behavioral and medical, including diet and psychotropic medications), psychological (depression and anxiety) as well as somatic comorbid disorders such as feeding problems, sensory processing disorders, gastrointestinal problems and sleep disorders, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, loneliness and social isolation, and family functioning (maternal depression and stress).