The aim of this study was to assess bat diversity and particularly, the significance of underground spaces for bats, in the Revúcka vrchovina Mts. We also studied foraging areas of R. euryale and M. schreibersii which form maternity colonies in the respective area. Considering the rich history of mining in the Revúcka vrchovina Mts. and the previously available faunistic data, the presence of yet undiscovered roosts and species was assumed. During a survey of the area in 2012–2014, altogether 248 new mining sites were traced and 16 species of bats were recorded to roost there. Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, and Barbastella barbastellus were dominant species and the latter two along with Rhinolophus ferrumequinum represented the most widespread species. Three wintering aggregations of Miniopterus schreibersii composed of 3500–5000 individuals each, and a wintering colony of Rhinolophus hipposideros composed of ca. 630 bats belong to the most significant results of the study. The existence of maternity colonies of Miniopterus schreibersii and Rhinolophus euryale was also confirmed in underground spaces in the region. The newly discovered occurrence sites of Miniopterus schreibersii and Rhinolophus euryale that shift the known margins of the species distribution ranges are of high importance. Data from telemetry tracking of these two species show that the territories where the particular individuals forage are rather extensive (>100 km2). According to these findings, practical conservation of the species and their habitats requires international cooperation.
Results of the Winter Bat Census in Two Sites of the Central Podolia (Ukraine)
In February 2009 a full bat census in GMN- and IVK-mines (Khmelnytsky Oblast) was done. In total, 4801 individuals of 10 species were counted: 2438 of 7 sp. in GMN-mines and 2364 of 9 sp. in IVK-mines. The carried work is the first experience of a full bat census in considerable by length underground systems (29 and 11 km correspondingly) in Ukraine. Examination of GMN-mines took 77,5 man-hours; IVK-mines, ca. 50 man-hours. The obtained results will be at a base of the further bat monitoring in these two sites.
In order to define appropriate conservation measures in northern Tunisia we surveyed the bat fauna of Mastouta-Bishshouk region in both roosting sites and foraging areas. A total of 11 species was recorded. We found only three occupied roosts including a maternity colony of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Miniopterus schreibersii and Myotis cappacinii in a train abandoned tunnel. A tunnel of water channel hosted Rhinolophus mehelyi, M. schreibersii and M. punicus. Echolocation calls were recorded at a bridge over Beja Wadi, at an artificial basin, and in crop fields. Bat activity was the highest at the bridge in late March, and null in the harvested crop fields in late August. Pipistrellus kuhlii was the most active bat species in the three sites, Pipistrellus pipistrellus was the second most active species, followed by Eptesicus isabellinus. Plecotus gaisleri and Myotis punicus were detected only once at the bridge and the basin respectively. This bat assemblage is representative of the bat fauna of northern Tunisia. Roost and foraging area surveys strongly benefit acoustic recording, even in winter when some bats remain active. The rare local underground roosts should be protected from human disturbance and the water quality of Majerda Wadi should be improved.