Erika Škvareková, Marianna Tomašková, Gabriel Wittenberger and Štefan Zelenák
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 Mocek, P.; Pieszczek, M.; Swiadrowski, J.; Kapusta, K.; Wiatowski, M.; Stanczyk, K. Pilot-scale undergroundcoalgasification
Malwina Cykowska, Małgorzata Bebek and Aleksandra Strugała-Wilczek
A flow injection analysis method for spectrophotometric determination of ammonium in waters produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) of lignite and hard coal was described. The analysis of UCG water samples is very difficult because of their very complicated matrix and colour. Due to a huge content of organic and inorganic substances and intensive colour of samples (sometimes yellow, quite often dark brown or even black), most analytical methods are not suitable for practical application. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is based on diffusion of ammonia through a hydrophobic gas permeable membrane from an alkaline solution stream into an acid-base indicator solution stream. Diffused ammonia causes a colour change of indicator solution, and ammonia is subsequently quantified spectrophotometrically at 590 nm wavelength. The reliability of the results provided by applied method was evaluated by checking validation parameters like accuracy and precision. Accuracy was evaluated by recovery studies using multiple standard addition method. Precision as repeatability was expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV).
Paweł Wrona, Zenon Różański, Grzegorz Pach and Lech Domagała
The paper presents the results of numerical simulations into the distribution of methane concentration at the intersection of two excavations with a fan (turned on) giving the air stream to the area of the crossing. Assumed case represents emergency situation related to the unexpected flow of methane from an excavation and its mixing with fresh air. It is possible when sudden gas outburst takes place, methane leaks from methane drainage system or gas leaks out the pipelines of underground coal gasification devices. Three options were considered - corresponding to three different speeds of the jet fan. They represent three stages of fan work. First - low air speed is forced by a pneumatic fan, when electricity is cut off after high methane concentration detection. Medium speed can be forced by pneumatic-electric device when methane concentration allows to turn on the electricity. Third, the highest speed is for electric fans. Simulations were carried out in the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) belongs to the group of programs Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The governing equations are being solved in a numerical way. It was shown that proposed solution allows partial dilution of methane in every variant of speed what should allow escape of the miners from hazardous area.
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Marat L. Rudakov, Elena B. Gridina and Vyacheslav S. Ershov
safety at workplace: A field study in a heavy automotive industry in the Northwest of Iran. Health Sci. Surveillance Sys ., 5 (2), 86–93.
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Semen G. Gendler, Marat L. Rudakov and Vladimir S. Kuznetsov
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