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As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
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Zecchin M., Praeg D., Ceramicola S. & Muto F. 2015: Onshore to offshore correlation of regional unconformities in the Plio–Pleistocene sedimentary successions of the Calabrian
There are eleven reservoirs in Ivana Gas Field and they are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones, developed in dominant clays and marls depositional sequences. Ika Gas Field is the only field in Adriatic with gas accumulated in carbonate rocks, which are the deepest reservoir of the total four reservoirs. A carbonate reservoir is defined with tectonical and erosional unconformity, which is placed between Mesozoic and Pliocene rocks. The three younger Ika reservoirs are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones that are laminated into clays and marls. The goal of our study was to assess the ‘Probability Of Success’ (POS) of finding new gas accumulations within the marginal area of those two fields, either in the form of Mesozoic rocks or Pleistocene deposits. The assessment was successfully completed using the Microsoft Excel POS table for the analyzed areas in the Croatian part of the Po Depression, namely, Northern Adriatic. The methodology was derived and adapted from a similar POS calculation, which was originally used to calculate the geological probability of hydrocarbon discoveries in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS).
Wissem Dhraief, Ferid Dhahri, Imen Chalwati and Noureddine Boukadi
The objective and the main contribution of this issue are dedicated to using subsurface data to delineate a basin beneath the Gulf of Tunis and its neighbouring areas, and to investigate the potential of this area in terms of hydrocarbon resources. Available well data provided information about the subsurface geology beneath the Gulf of Tunis. 2D seismic data allowed delineation of the basin shape, strata geometries, and some potential promising subsurface structures in terms of hydrocarbon accumulation. Together with lithostratigraphic data obtained from drilled wells, seismic data permitted the construction of isochron and isobath maps of Upper Cretaceous-Neogene strata. Structural and lithostratigraphic interpretations indicate that the area is tectonically complex, and they highlight the tectonic control of strata deposition during the Cretaceous and Neogene. Tectonic activity related to the geodynamic evolution of the northern African margin appears to have been responsible for several thickness and facies variations, and to have played a significant role in the establishment and evolution of petroleum systems in northeastern Tunisia. As for petroleum systems in the basin, the Cretaceous series of the Bahloul, Mouelha and Fahdene formations are acknowledged to be the main source rocks. In addition, potential reservoirs (Fractured Abiod and Bou Dabbous carbonated formations) sealed by shaly and marly formations (Haria and Souar formations respectively) show favourable geometries of trap structures (anticlines, tilted blocks, unconformities, etc.) which make this area adequate for hydrocarbon accumulations.
Helena Hercman, Michał Gąsiorowski, Michał Gradziński and Ditta Kicińska
The First Dating of Cave Ice from the Tatra Mountains, Poland and its Implication to Palaeoclimate Reconstructions
Lodowa Cave in Ciemniak, which belongs to the dynamic ice cave type, contains the biggest perennial block of cave-ice in the Tatra Mountains. The ice represents congelation type, since it originates from freezing of water which infiltrates the cave. Two generations of ice have been recognized in this cave. They are divided by the distinct unconformity. The ice building both generations is layered. Two moths which were found in the younger generations were sampled and dated by 14C method yielding 195 ± 30 and 125 ± 30 years. Bearing in mind the position in the section and the fact that the cave ice has waned since the 20s of the last century, the age is 1720-1820 AD and 1660-1790 AD respectively. It proves that the ice was formed during the Little Ice Age. Hence, the erosion boundary which underlies this generation records the degradation of ice before the Little Ice Age most probably during the Medieval Warm Period. The ice volume in the cave was substantially smaller before the Little Ice Age than it is today, despite the clear tendency to melting, which has been recognized since 20s of the last century. The older generation of ice is supposed to have its origins in a cold stage between the Atlantic period and the Medieval Warm Period.