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Abstract

The article is focused on the possibilities of ultrasound surfaces control on metallic materials by conventional ultrasonic techniques. Physical principles, types of ultrasonic waves to be used for surface control are described in the theoretical part. Three surface control techniques are listed in the experimental part of article. The first technique is a common control by angle ultrasonic probe with using transverse waves. The second technique is surface control by 30-70-70 creep waves and third techniques is surface testing by Rayleigh waves. Practical examples of ultrasonic testing for all techniques are illustrated. The conclusion of the article is devoted to the advantages and limitations of the individual testing methods.

: Predikcia parametrov kvality smrekového konštrukčného dreva. Zvolen, DF TU vo Zvolene, 79 p. Reinprecht, L., 2008: Ochrana dreva. Zvolen, TU vo Zvolene, 453 p. Reinprecht, L., Hibký, M., 2011: The type and degree of decay in spruce wood analyzed by the ultrasonic method in three anatomical directions. BioResources, 6:4953–4968. Reinprecht, L., Pánek, M., 2013: Ultrasonic technique for evaluation of biodefects in wood: Part 2 – In situ and in vitro analyses of old beams using ultrasonic and bending tests, International Wood Products Journal, 4:22–29. Schmidt, O., 2006

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound waves on mechanical properties of organic bread. Mixed grain bread baked at a local bakery according to its original recipe was the material subjected to testing. Prior to baking, the dough was sonicated at frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz for 3 minutes, and at a frequency of 100 kHz for 3 minutes and 6 minutes. The mechanical properties of the bread (compression test, penetration test and TPA) were examined after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h following the baking process. The maximum work obtained in the compression test after 24 h following the baking ranged from 616 N to 668 N. On the next day following the baking, the maximum work value ranged from 750 N to 898 N, while after 72 hours, it ranged from 988 N to 1135 N. In the penetration test, the following results were obtained: after 24 hours, the force value ranged from 2.71 N to 3.17 N; after 48 hours following the baking, it ranged from 4.90 N to 6.35 N; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 3.98 N to 6.88 N. As regards elasticity, the obtained results fell within the following ranges: after 24 hours following the baking, from 0.53 to 0.58; after 48 hours following the baking, from 0.43 to 0.55; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 0.40 to 0.45. Gumminess measured after 24 hours following the baking ranged from 8.75 N to 18.71 N; after 48 hours, from 10.83 N to 15.48 N; and after 72 hours, the gumminess values ranged from 15.57 N to 19.06 N. As regards chewiness, the following results were obtained: after 24 hours following the baking, from 8.00 N to 17.59 N; after 48 hours following the baking, from 9.77 N to 13.87 N; and after 72 hours following the baking, from 12.56 N to 16.85 N. The frequencies and durations of sonication applied changed no mechanical properties of the tested bread.

Dlouhodobým cílem programu řízení životnosti tlakových částí kotlů je eliminace poruchových odstávek a bezpečné provozování těchto zařízení. K detekci kritických blokací ohybů trubek odloupnutými částicemi epitaktické vrstvy byla ve spolupráci s EPRI vybrána metoda LFET (Low Frequency Electromagnetic Testing) a pro měření celkové tloušťky oxidické vrstvy metoda UT (Ultrasonic Testing), které nacházejí uplatnění zejména v USA. Ultrazvukový tloušťkoměr je použitelný pouze pro feritické materiály. Upravená metoda vířivých proudů (ET) bude sloužit ke stanovení tloušťky epitaktické vrstvy na austenitických ocelích.

Abstract

This paper analyses the nickel based superalloy Inconel 713C casts typically used in high and low pressure turbines of aircraft engines. The ingots were manufactured in the Research and Development Laboratory for Aerospace Materials at the Rzeszów University of Technology. The superalloy structures were analysed by the following methods: X-ray diffraction orientation measurement and ultrasonic wave propagation. Ultrasonic techniques are mainly used to measure the blade wall’s thickness. Measurement accuracy is determined by the velocity of the ultrasonic wave in the material tested. This work evaluates the effect of the nickel-based superalloy microstructure on the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagation. Three different macrostructures: equiax (EQ), directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal (SX) were analysed. The authors determined the crystal misorientation in the obtained casts as the deviation of [001] crystallographic direction from the withdrawal axis or the main axis of the ingots. The measurements performed allowed researchers to identify significant differences in the wave velocity between EQ, DS and SX structures.

. Love, A E. H.: A treatise on the mathematical theory of elasticity; Cambridge University Press, 1927, 8. Stungis, G. E., and S. L. Merker: Elastic properties of some reconstituted tobaccos as determined by ultrasonic techniques; 28th TCRC Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina, Oct. 28-30, 1974. 9. Lindsay, R. B.: Mechanical radiation; McGrawHill, 196o. 10. Thomas, T. Y.: Plastic flow and fracture in solids; Academic Press, 1961. 11. Thomas, T. Y.: Tensor analysis and differential geometry; Academic Press, 1965. 12. Love, A. E. H.: op. cit. 13. Stungis, G. E., and G

, NDT&E International, Vol. 34, pp. 249-258, 2001. [15] Harb, M. S, Yuan, F. G., Non-contact ultrasonic technique for Lamb wave characterization in composite plate, Ultrasonics , Vol. 64, pp. 162-169, 2016. [16] Wang, L., Yuan, F. G., Group velocity and characteristic wave curves of Lamb waves in composites: Modeling and experiments , Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 67, pp. 1370-1384, 2007. [17] Pant, S., Laliberte, J., Martinez, M., Rocha, B., Derivation and experimental validation of Lamb wave equations for an n – layered anisotropic composite laminate

. Technical Report No. AR-2007-021. Australian Transport Safety Bureau. [4] Hsu D. K. (2013): 15 – Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace composites: ultrasonic techniques . In: Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Polymer Matrix Composites, V. M. Karbhari (Ed.). Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering. Woodhead Publishing: pp. 397-422. [5] Giurgiutiu V. (2016): Structural Health Monitoring of Aerospace Composites . Academic Press. [6] Bouvet C. and Rivallant S. (2016): Damage tolerance of composite structures under low-velocity impact

(2011), 661-666. Krishnan Balasubramaniam, Jitendra S. Valluri and Raghu V. Prakash.: Creep damage characterization using a low amplitude nonlinear ultrasonic technique. Materials Characterization, 62(2011), 275-286. Zumpano, G., and Meo, M.: Damage localization using transient non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy on composite structures. International Journal of Non-Linear mechanics, 43(2007), 217-30. Meo, M., Polimeno, U. and Zumpano, G.: Detecting damage in composite material using nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy methods. Applied Composite Materials 15(2008), 115

, Messer HH. Evaluation of an ultrasonic technique to remove fractured rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments from root canals: clinical cases. J Endod, 2003;29:764-767. 30. Plotino G, Pameijer CH, Maria Grande N, Somma F. Ultrasonics in endodontics: A review of the literature. J Endod, 2007;33:81-95. 31. Fors UGH, Berg JO. A method for the removal of separated endodontic instruments from root canals. J Endod, 1983;9:156-159. 32. Weisman MI. The removal of difficult silver cones. J Endod, 1983;9:210-211. 33. Roda RS, Gettleman BH. Nonsurgical Retreatment. In