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capillary permeability leading to fluid retention in interstitial compartment. Moreover, CPB might be involved in the development of multiple organ dysfunction through inflammatory cytokine activation [ 3 ]. All of these consequences could adversely affect postoperative outcomes and lead to clinical sequelae including bleeding diathesis, dysfunction of an organ (e.g. heart, liver, kidney) or organ system (e.g., respiratory system, nervous system) or multiple organ system failure [ 3 , 4 ]. Ultrafiltration can mitigate the adverse effects of CPB by removing free water and

and operating strategies in ultrafiltration membrane systems for municipal wastewater treatment: preliminary results. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46 (21), 6716-6723. [5] Dojlido, J., Dożańsk, W., Hermanowicz, W., Koziorowski, B., Zerbe, J. (1999). Fizyczno-chemiczne badanie wody i ścieków, ARKADY, Warszawa. [6] Dudziak, M., Luks-Betlej K., Waniek, A., Bodzek, M. (2003). Ultrafiltration in the removal of toxic organic micropollutants from natural waters, Engineering and Protection of Environment, S1, 61-71. [7] Dudziak, M., Bodzek, M., Rajca, M

processing water: Pre-treatment and membrane fouling minimization. J Food Eng. 2017;195:85-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2016.09.013. [13] Brião VB, Tavares CRG. Pore blocking mechanism for the recovery of milk solids from dairy wastewater by ultrafiltration. Braz J Chem Eng. 2015;29(2):393-407. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-66322012000200019. [14] Ahmadun FR, Pendashteh A, Abdullah LC, Biak DRA, Madaeni SS, Abidin ZZ. Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment. J Hazard Mater. 2009;170:530-551. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.044. [15] Padaki M, Surya Murali R

performance and cleaning cycles of new tubular ceramic microfiltration membrane fouled with a model yeast suspension, Desalination , 220, 273-289. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.034. 19. Juang, R.S., Chen, H.L. & Chen, Y.S. (2008). Resistance-in-series analysis in cross-flow ultrafiltration of fermentation broths of Bacillus subtilis culture, J. Membr. Sci. , 323, 193-200. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2008.06.032. 20. Markardij, A., Chen, X.D. & Farid, M.M. (1999). Microfiltration and ultrafiltration of milk: some aspects of fouling and cleaning, Food Bioproducts Process ., 77

References Li, X., Zeng, G. M., Huang, J. H., Zhang, C., Fang, Y. Y., Qu, Y. H., Luo, F., Lin, D. & Liu, H. L. (2009). Recovery and reuse of surfactant SDS from a MEUF retentate containing Cd 2+ or Zn 2+ by ultrafiltration. J. Membr. Sci. 337, 92-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2009.03.030. Anielak, A. M. (2002). Chemical and physico-chemical wastewater treatment. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN , Warszawa (in Polish). Szymanowski, J. (1990). Extraction of copper by hydroxyoximes. Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe , Warszawa (in Polish). Szymanowski, J. (2003). New trends in

References 1. Madsen, R. (1971). Ultrafiltration as a Method for Juice Purification. Zuckerindustrie, 12, 612-614. 2. Schreve l, G. (2001). Membrane filtration on beet raw juice and prelimed juice. Zuckerindustrie 5, 386. 3. Bubnik, Z. Hinkova, A. & Kadlec, P. (1998). Cross-flow Micro- and Ultrafiltration Applied on Ceramic Membranes in Impure Sugar Solutions. Czech J. Food Sci. 1, 29-32. DOI: S1383-5866(01)00121-6. 4. Hinkowa , A. Bubnik, Z. Kadlec, P. & Pridal, J. (2002). Potentials of separation membranes in the sugar industry. Separation and Purification

antibody homology modeling protocols in molecular operating environment, Proteins 82 (2014) 1599–1610. 14. H. S. Larsen, P. K. Chin, E. J. Begg and B. P. Jensen, Quantification of total and unbound concentrations of lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in human plasma by ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS. Bioanalysis 3 (2011) 843–852; https://doi.org/10.4155/bio.11.46 15. J. Chen, H. Wu, G. B. Xu, M. M. Dai, S. L. Hu, L. L. Sun, W. Wang, R. Wang, S. P. Li and G. Q. Li, Determination of geniposide in adjuvant arthritis rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid

Galvanic Wastewater Treatment by Means of Anionic Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration

This work is focused on polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration as an effective heavy metal separation technique. Three types of effluents, containing Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions, were subjected to the separation process. Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) - PSSS, a water soluble anionic polyelectrolyte was used as a metal binding agent. Two Sepa® CF (Osmonics) membranes: EW, made of polysulfone and a modified polyacrylonitrile membrane MW, were used in the ultrafiltration process. The preliminary UF tests were carried out on model solutions with target metal ion concentrations of 10, 100 and 250 mg dm-3. The main parameters affecting the metal retention (the polyelectrolyte quantity and solution pH) were examined. The values of pH 6 and polymer : metal concentration ratio CPSSS : CM = 7.5 : 1 (mol of mer unit per mol of metal) were selected to perform the galvanic wastewater ultrafiltration-concentration tests. Three types of wastewater containing Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions within the concentration range of 30÷70 mg dm-3 were used in the investigations. Very high metal retention coefficients, up to > 99%, were achieved. The retentates obtained were subjected to the decomplexation-ultrafiltration (pH = 1) and subsequent diafiltration step, which enabled partial recovery of concentrated metal ions and the polyelectrolyte. The recovered polyelectrolyte was reused toward Ni(II) ions and the high effectiveness of metal separation has been achieved.

33482–2742. (2006). [12] A. Román, J. Wang, J. Csanádi, C. Hodúr, Gy. Vatai, Partial demineralization and concentration of acid whey by nanofiltration combined with diafiltration. Desalination, 241. (2009) 288–295. [13] C. Hodúr, Sz. Kertész, J. Csanádi, G. Szabó, Comparison of 3DTA and VSEP systems during the ultrafiltration of sweet whey. Desal. and Water Treatm., 10. (2010) 265–271. [14] Sz. Szélpál, Zs. Kohány, E. Fogarassy, J. Csanádi, Gy. Vatai, C. Hodúr, Assaying of the filtration parameters of whey by different filtration systems. Acta Technica Corviniensis

Introduction Ultrafiltration is widely used in the dairy industry for concentration, purification and fractionation of milk components as it has the following advantages in comparison with the traditional separation methods: environmental friendliness ( Kumar et al ., 2013 ; Tamime, 2013 ), lower energy consumption ( Baldasso et al ., 2011 ), increased yield ( Macedo et al ., 2012 ; Ong et al ., 2013 ) and improved quality ( Reschke da Cunha et al ., 2006 ; Domagala and Wszolek, 2008 ; Heino et al ., 2010 ; Domagala et al ., 2012 ) of the final