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In endurance and ultra-endurance races, pacing is crucial for a successful finish ( Abbiss and Laursen, 2008 ; Foster et al., 1993 , 2005 ). Pacing can be defined as the strategy by which effort is managed throughout an exercise session in relation to a specific goal and with the knowledge of the
muscle glycogen levels after consuming a LCHF diet, the post-exercise level of muscle glycogen was similar to that before the dietary intervention.
Surprisingly, a recent study ( Volek et al., 2016 ) revealed that ultra-endurance athletes who had consumed LCHF diets (<20% energy from CHO, >60% from fat) for at least 6 months achieved higher peak exercise intensity supported by fat oxidation than athletes on HCLF diet (LCHF: 70.3 ± 6.3; HCLF: 54.9 ± 7.8% VO 2max ). These fat-adapted athletes also showed a higher fat oxidation rate (LCHF: 1.54 ± 0.18; HCLF: 0.67 ± 0
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High values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) 2 have been linked to performance levels in ultra-endurance races ( Whyte et al., 2000 ). Furthermore, other performance factors such as core temperature, feeding, hydration and even muscle cramps during the race have been related to performance in long-distance events ( Laursen, 2011 ; Michalczyk et al. 2016 ,).
Body composition is also related to performance in endurance sports, including triathlons. An excess of body weight is
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