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From Double Iron to Double Deca Iron Ultra-Triathlon - A Retrospective Data Analysis from 1985 to 2011

and training characteristics of Ironman triathletes and Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. Journal of Sports Sciences , 29, 1373-1380. Knechtle, B., Knechtle, P., Rosemann, T., & Senn, O. (2011c). Personal best time, not anthropometry or training volume, is associated with total race time in a triple iron triathlon, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research , 25, 1142-50. Knechtle, B., Knechtle, P., Schulze, I., & Kohler, G. (2008b). Vitamins, minerals and race performance in ultra-endurance runners

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The Recovery Phase Following a Triple Iron Triathlon

of body fat and skeletal muscle mass - The Triple Iron Triathlon Austria 2006. Res Sports Med , 2008a. 16: 97-110. Knechtle B., Duff B., Schulze I., Kohler G. A multi-stage ultra-endurance run over 1,200 km leads to a continuous accumulation of total body water. J Sports Sci Med , 2008b. 7: 357-364 Knechtle B., Knechtle P., Schück R., Andonie J.L., Kohler G. Effects of a Deca Iron triathlon on body composition - a case study. Int J Sports Med , 2008c. 29: 343-351. Knechtle B., Salas

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Changes in the Blood Antioxidant Defense Capacity During a 24 Hour Run

: 6721-6728. Knez WL, Coombes JS, Jenkins DG. Ultra-endurance exercise and oxidative damage. Implications for cardiovascular health. Sports Med. 2006, 36:429-441. Kono Y, Fridovich I. Superoxide radical inhibits catalase. J Biol Chem 1982, 257: 5751-5754. Lu SC. Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Mol Aspects Med 2009, 30: 42-59. Machefer F, Groussard C, Rannou-Bekono F, Zouhal H, Faure H, Vincent S, Cillard J, Gratas-Delamarche A. Extreme running competition

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Effects of the Performance Level and Race Distance on Pacing in Ultra-Triathlons

swimming, 1800 km of cycling and 422 km of running ( Knechtle et al., 2011 ; Lepers et al., 2011 ). An athlete who competes in a race of such a length should know the significance of each discipline (swimming, cycling or running) in order to best strategize his/her pacing. In endurance and ultra-endurance races, pacing is crucial for a successful finish ( Abbiss and Laursen, 2008 ; Foster et al., 1993 , 2005 ). Pacing can be defined as the strategy by which effort is managed throughout an exercise session in relation to a specific goal and with the knowledge of the

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Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance?

muscle glycogen levels after consuming a LCHF diet, the post-exercise level of muscle glycogen was similar to that before the dietary intervention. Surprisingly, a recent study ( Volek et al., 2016 ) revealed that ultra-endurance athletes who had consumed LCHF diets (<20% energy from CHO, >60% from fat) for at least 6 months achieved higher peak exercise intensity supported by fat oxidation than athletes on HCLF diet (LCHF: 70.3 ± 6.3; HCLF: 54.9 ± 7.8% VO 2max ). These fat-adapted athletes also showed a higher fat oxidation rate (LCHF: 1.54 ± 0.18; HCLF: 0.67 ± 0

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Ten Marathons in Ten Days: Effects on Biochemical Parameters and Redox Balance – Case Report

. 2017 Feb;51(2):222-236. 7. Radak Z, Ishihara K, Tekus E, Varga C, Posa A, Balogh L, Boldogh I, Koltai E. Exercise, oxidants, and antioxidants change the shape of the bell-shaped hormesis curve. Redox Biol. 2017 Aug;12:285-290. 8. de Lucas RD, Caputo F, Mendes de Souza K, Sigwalt AR, Ghisoni K, Lock Silveira PC, Remor AP, da Luz Scheffer D, Guglielmo LG, Latini A. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(1):22-30. 9. Seifi

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Assessment of the Nutritive Value of Dishes Designed for Athletes – Grilled Chicken Salad and Spaghetti with Tomatoes and Parmesan Cheese

antioxidant vitamins status of ultra endurance athletes. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2007, 26, 311-316. 22. Manore M.M., Thompson J.L., Energy requirements of the athlete: assessment and evidence of energy efficiency. 2006, in: Clinical Sports Nutrition, (eds. L. Burke, V. Deakin). McGraw-Hill Medical, Australia, pp. 113-130. 23. Maughan R.J., Burke LM, Coyle EF., (eds.) Food, Nutrition and Sports Performance; IOC Consensus Conference on Sports Nutrition. 2004, Routledge, London. 24. Nowacka E., Polaszczyk S., Kopeć A., Leszczyńska

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Concentrations of retinol, α-tocopherol, copper, zinc and iron in plasma of young subjects differing in their engagement in motor activities

. Youssef, H. Faure, L. Malarde, A. Gratas-Delamarche (2007) Nutritional and plasmatic antioxidant vitamins status of ultra endurance athletes. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 26: 311-316. Maughan R. J. (1999) Role of micronutrients in sport and physical activity. Br. Med. Bull. 55:683-690. Morrissey P. A., P. J. A. Sheehy (1999) Optimal nutrition: vitamin E. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 58: 495-468. Neuhouser M. L., C. L. Rock, A. L. Eldridge, A. R. Kristal, R. E. Patterson, D. A. Cooper, D. Neumark-Sztainer, L

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Changes in Triathletes’ Performance and Body Composition During a Specific Training Period for a Half-Ironman Race

and recreational triathlon ( WTC, 2016 ). High values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) 2 have been linked to performance levels in ultra-endurance races ( Whyte et al., 2000 ). Furthermore, other performance factors such as core temperature, feeding, hydration and even muscle cramps during the race have been related to performance in long-distance events ( Laursen, 2011 ; Michalczyk et al. 2016 ,). Body composition is also related to performance in endurance sports, including triathlons. An excess of body weight is

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The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

response to an ultra-endurance exercise bout in experienced athletes. J Appl Physiol , 2013; 114(1): 66-72 Malina RM, Rogol AD. Sport training and the growth and pubertal maturation of young athletes. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev , 2011; 9(1): 441–55 Moreira A, Mortatti A, Aoki M, Arruda A, Freitas C, Carling C. Role of free testosterone in interpreting physical performance in elite young brazilian soccer players. Pediatr Exerc Sci , 2013; 25(2): 186–97 Nemet D, Portal S, Zadik Z, Pilz-Burstein R, Adler-Portal D, Meckel Y, Eliakim A. Training increases

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