Travel narratives are complex accounts that include a significant layer of factual information – related to the geography, history, and/or the culture of a particular place or country – and a more personal layer, comprising the author’s unique perceptions and rendering of the travel experience. In the last thirty years of transition from a communist to a democratic society, the Romanians have been free to travel to any country they choose; however, during the communist period, especially during the 1980s, travelling to Western, capitalist countries, such as France, Great Britain, Canada, or the United States, was rather limited and fraught with complex issues. Still, Romanian travelers during that time managed to visit the United States, on diplomatic- or business-related exchanges, and published interesting travel stories of their experiences there. Therefore, this essay sets out to capture, from a comparative perspective, the impressions and encounters depicted by Radu Enescu in Between Two Oceans (1986), Ion Dinu in Traveler through America (1991) and Viorel Sălăgean in Hello America! (1992), with a view to analyzing how their descriptions and perceptions of two major urban spaces, New York City and San Francisco, reflect the complexity of the American social and cultural landscape in the late 1970s and mid-1980s.
Salut Caodaïque [bilingual version]. Saigon: éd. Phan-Trường-Mạnh. Phan, John. 2016. “The Twentieth-Century Secularization of the Sinograph in Vietnam, and its Demotion from the Cosmological to the Aesthetic.” Journal of World Literature, 1, pp. 275-293. Smith, Ralph B. 1969. “Bui Quang Chiêu and the Constitutionalist Party in French Cochinchina, 1917-30.” Modern Asian Studies, 3, pp. 131-150. Trần Trọng Dương. 2018. “A Mandala of Literacy Practices in Premodern Vietnam: A Study of Buddhist Temples.” Journal of Vietnamese Studies, 13 (3), pp. 88-186. Weber, Max. 1995
representation. “Geoforum” Vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 139-150. McNamara T.P., Timothy P., 1986, Mental representation of spatial relations. “Cognitive Psychology” Vol. 18, pp. 7-121. Moles A., 1971, Teoria informacji a przekaz kartograficzny. “Przegląd Zagranicznej Literatury Geograficznej” T. 11, nr 1, pp. 12-17. Montello D.R., 2002, Cognitive map-design research in twentiethcentury: theoretical and empirical approaches. “Cartography and Geogr. Inform. Science” Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 283-304. Morrison J.L., 1981, Systematizing the role of “feedback” from the map percipient to the
Since about the mid-nineteenth century, together with the changing socio-economic situation, different types of allotments appeared in Wrocław. Initially, they were rented gardens, gardens for the poor or for factory workers. At the beginning of the twentieth century, school gardens and the so called Schreber gardens with a large common square were set up as part of Dr. Schreber’s educational health program. In 1914-1918, “war” vegetable gardens were commonly cultivated. In the 1920s allotment gardens began to be systematically introduced to the city plan as permanent, purposefully designed elements of urban greenery. They were often designed together with urban parks, or so called “Folk Parks” of a recreational and sport character. In the 1930s, during the economic crisis, allotments with garden houses were adapted for the unemployed and the homeless to live in. Wrocław allotment gardens have undeniable historical, social, recreational, economic and compositional value. These gardens are a cultural heritage that should be protected. In Western Europe we are witnessing a renaissance of the idea of allotments, while in Poland - a tendency to eliminate them from urban landscapes.
RES 11 (2/2018), p. 170-185 DOI: 10.2478/ress-2018-0014
The Byzantine Symphony and the Idea
of Christian Empire in Russian Orthodox Thought
at the Turn of the Nineteenth and TwentiethCenturies
The ideal of Byzantine symphony is still present in contemporary debate on
church-state relations. A worldly notion of power interferes with a theological
assessment of authority in the Church: hence the identification of the Christian
empire with the kingdom of God, in a kind of a realized eschatology. This paper
The present manuscript presents the view point of the author for providing a course on environmental history for chemistry students and secondary school pupils. Special attention is paid on the societal developments in the twentieth century when the anthropogenic impacts on the environment have become especially deep and devastating. The course of lectures is focused on the environmental changes in each environmental phase (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) as well as in the society as a whole. The process of environmental changes is illustrated by various examples from each natural system in consideration and the anthropogenic factor for each one of them is defined and discussed. The presented material is an example for organization of an environmental history course of lecture which could be subject of additional information and conclusions related to the social attitude to the problem of environmental pollution and environmental risk assessment.
If we recall the most important words for the poetry, we should begin the story with the stones, lily, hands and blood, which, if you look at them with the philological accuracy, are interrelated: situate themselves clearly on opposite banks of the creative process. They talk about the construction of the building consisting of perceptions about their own strength and weakness, ecstasy and congealing in what for centuries the classics poets have tried to fathom: the harmony and clarity, driven by the hope that in life they should above all stick to be beauty. And in addition, they ought to go further than discipline, practice eye and expand the field of view, should not shun from the gusts of the heart, because the heart grows more powerful due to great ideas, passions. Spacious becomes the vision of writing, it is the weave of contradictions - this is how one of the most important twentieth-century poets, who wrote in Yiddish, Anna Margolin sees it. Margolin’s poetry is a clear return towards neoclassicism, building up topics, theses, allusions, ideas taken from ideologically close to her artists of great individuality, Anna Akhmatova (from whom she took her name), Osip Mandelstam, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ezra Pound.
The architectural heritage of post-war modernism in Poland is often named a “dissonant” or “unwanted heritage”. Its evaluation and interpretation is often ambiguous, whereas the social reception, in spite of the growing common awareness of the matter, very diversified. A proper assessment of the phenomenon requires analysis against the background of twentieth-century European architecture. The InnovaConcrete project is comprised of multidisciplinary studies on strategies for the preservation of concrete-based heritage which provide for identification of the most valuable assets in Europe. The aim of this paper is to place the local Polish cultural heritage of twentieth-century architecture against the broad context of global and universal values and to present the methodology of the research.
Data on the occurrence, biology, and historical background of the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., (Pisces, Salmoniformes) in the Elbe river basin (Europe, North Sea drainage area) with a focus on Bohemian territory (Central Europe) from the fourteenth to twentieth centuries are summarized in this paper. Historical methods of salmon fishing in Central Europe and historical legal protection of salmon in Bohemia are presented. The salmon is a model example of species which was extirpated as a result of anthropogenic changes in the landscape and rivers in some water systems. The human activities, such as stream bed regulation, dam system construction, other migration barriers, water pollution, fisheries exploitation, that led to the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Elbe river basin (are discussed. The last sporadic migrating native salmon were registered in the Bohemian section of the Elbe river basin in the mid twentieth century.