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References 1. Anonymous: Virus Taxonomy; 2012 Release ( 2. Asano K.M., Gregori F., Souza S.P., Rotava D., Oliveira R.N., Villarreal L.Y., Richtzenhain L.J., Brandao P.E.: Bovine rotavirus in turkeys with enteritis. Avian Dis 2011, 55, 697-700. 3. Bellinzoni R., Mattion N., Vallejos L., La Torre J.L., Scodeller E.A.: Atypical rotavirus in chickens in Argentina. Res Vet Sci 1987, 43, 130-131. 4. Day J.M., Spackman E., Pantin-Jackwood M.: A multiplex RT- PCR test for the differential identification of turkey

References American Poultry Association (2001). The American Standard of Perfection. APA, Troy, NY. AO AC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AO AC International. 16th Edition. Association of Ana- lytical Chemistry, Arlington, VA, USA. Berri C., Le Bihan-Duval E., Baeza E., Chartrin P., Picgirard L.,Jehl N., Quen- tin M., Piccard M., Duc los J. (2005). Further processing characteristics of breast and leg meat from fast-medium- and slow-growing commercial chickens. Anim. Res.. 54: 123-134. British United Turkeys (2013). B.U.T. 6 Commercial performance

transport. A review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 33: 1108–1139. Guerreiro Neto A.C., Pezzato A.C., Sartori J.R., Mori C., Cruz V.C., Fascina V.B., Pinheiro D.F., Madeira L.A., Goncalvez J.C. (2011). Emulsifier in broiler diets containing different fat sources. Braz. J. Poult. Sci., 13: 119–125. Hill F.W., Anderson D.L., Renner R., Carew Jr.L.B. (1960). Studies on the metabolizable energy of grain and grain products for chickens. Poultry Sci., 39: 573–579. Hybrid Turkeys(2016). Commercial management guide. Converter commercial females performance goals. http

Introduction Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a highly infectious RNA virus that induces turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in turkey flocks. This virus is a representative of the Pneumoviridae family and the Metapneumovirus genus and is currently divided into four subtypes (A–D) ( 4 , 6 , 12 ). Avian metapneumovirus infections cause significant losses in the poultry industry due to poorer body weight gains, directly attributable deaths, a decrease in laying performance, and immunosuppression which increases birds’ sensitivity to secondary infections ( 15 ). The

, C. famata , C. tropicalis , and C. krusei might also cause candidiasis in poultry ( 13 , 19 , 20 ). Lesions may be observed all along the length of the intestinal tract, but mostly occurs in the beak and crop, where during severe infections pseudomembrane or diphtheric membrane formations are observed, sometimes with “cheese-like” material ( 7 ). Our previous research has shown that antimicrobial treatment of turkeys, especially with beta-lactams, predisposes them to fungal infestations of the gastrointestinal tract ( 23 ). The highest number of species

References 1. Ekert Kabalin, A., Menčik, S., Ostović, M., Štoković, I., Grgas, A., Horvath, Š., Balenović, T., Sušić, V., Karadjole, I., Pavičić, Ž. (2012). Morphological characteristics of Dalmatian turkey: preliminary results. Maced J Anim Sci. 2, 277-280. 2. Maurić, M., Starčević, K., Menčik, S., Ostović, M., Ekert Kabalin, A. (2016). Influence of meat type, sex and storage time on fatty acid profile of free range Dalmatian turkey. Mac Vet Rev. 39, 167-174. 3. Ekert Kabalin, A., Menčik, S., Ostović, M., Kabalin, H

uptake by the rat gastrointestinal mucosa: quantitation and particle size dependency. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 42: 821–826. Jankowski J., Kozłowski K., Ognik K., Zduńczyk Z., Otowski K., Sawosz E., Juśkiewicz J. (2019). Redox and immunological status of turkeys fed diets with different levels and sources of copper. Ann. Anim. Sci., 19: 215–227. Jegede A.V., Oduguwa O.O., Oso A.O., Fafiolu A.O., Idowu O.M.O., Nollet L. (2012). Growth performance, blood characteristics and plasma lipids of growing pullet fed dietary concentrations of organic and inorganic copper sources

References Aebi H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Meth. Enzymol., 105: 121-126. Albrecht A., Herbert U., Miskel D., Heinemann C., Braun C., Dohlen S., Zeitz J.O., Eder K., Saremi B., Kreyenschmidt J. (2017). Effect of methionine supplementation in chicken feed on the quality and shelf life of fresh poultry meat. Poultry Sci., 96: 2853-28611. British United Turkeys Ltd (BUT) (2012). Commercial performance goals. 5th ed. Broughton, Chester, UK: Warren Hall. (accessed 22.11.2012). Chen Y.P., Chen X., Zhang H., Zhou Y.M. (2013

General of Migration Management (DGMM), updated as of April 4, 2019. were welcomed by Turkey under the temporary protection regime. See for more information on this regime. For Turkey, in particular, this unprecedented situation has not only produced an humanitarian emergency but also likely affected the lives of millions of Turkish people. In this context, the demand for policy responses is pressing and so does the demand of relevant information. This report aims precisely at

References Açıkmeşe, S. A. & Aydın, M. (2007), ‘Europeanization through EU conditionality: understanding the new era in Turkish foreign policy,’ Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies , vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 263–274. AKP Political Group (2002), Prime Minister and Chairman of the AKP Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s Speech to his Political Group, February 13, 2002. AKP Political Group (2003), Prime Minister and Chairman of the AKP Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s Speech to his Political Group, November 18, 2003. AKP Political Group (2004), Prime Minister and Chairman of the AKP