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References 1. AKUTHOTA, V. & S. F. NADLER, 2004. Core strengthening. In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Journal. 85(Suppl. 1), 86-92. ISSN 0003-9993. 2. ANDRE, M. J. et al., 2012. A reliable method for assessing rotational power. In: The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 26(3): 720-724. ISSN 1064-8011. 3. BAE, J. H. et al., 2012. Asymmetry of the isokinetic trunk rotation strength of korean male professional golf players. In: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine. 36(6): 821-827. ISSN 2234-0653. 4. ELLENBECKER, T. S. & E. P. ROETERT

treatment for moderate idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis 2007, Vol. 2:18-25. Matyja M, Domagalska M. Podstawy usprawniania neurorozwojowego wg Berty i Karela Bobathów, AWF, Katowice, 2005. Matyja M, Gogola A. Edukacja sensomotoryczna niemowląt. AWF, Katowice, 2005. Matyja M, Saulicz E, Kokosz M, Syryjczyk M. Zaburzenia kontroli miednicy w pozycji siedzącej i podczas siadania jako przejaw hipotonii posturalnej w wieku przedszkolnym. Fizjoterapia Polska, 2004; Vol.4, Nr 1, 31-39. Menegoni F, Vismara L, Capodaglio P, Crivellini M, Galli M. Kinematics of trunk movements

References 1. Bergeron Ch., Cheriet F., Ronsky J., Zernicke R., Labelle H. (2005), Prediction of anterior scoliotic spinal curve from trunk surface using support vector regression, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 18, 973-983. 2. Berryman F., Pynsent P., Fairbank J., Disney S. (2008), A new system for measuring three-dimensional back shape in scoliosis, Eur Spine J., 17, 663 - 672. 3. Clin J., Aubin C. E., Parent S., Labelle H. (2010), A biomechanical study of the Charleston brace for the treatment of scoliosis, Spine, 1, 35(19), 940-7. 4. Gál

range of motion (ROM) to hip ROM. A LHR greater than 1.0 indicates that lumbar motion is greater than hip motion, and a LHR less than 1.0 indicates that lumbar motion is lesser than hip motion. Several studies have evaluated the LHR in trunk flexion, but not in trunk extension. Esola et al. (1996) studied trunk flexion, dividing it into three phases of 0–30°, 30–60°, and 60–90° and reporting LHR values of 1.6, 1.1, and 0.5, respectively. Mayer et al. (1984) also studied trunk flexion, dividing it into two phases of 0–90° and 90–120° and reporting LHR values of 1

References 1. Grivas T. B., Vasiliadis E. S., Koufopoulos, G., Segos, D., Triantafyllopoulos, G., Mouzakis V. (2006). Study of trunk asymmetry in normal children and adolescents. Scoliosis, 1 (19). 2. Rogala E. J., Drummond D. S., Gurr J. (1978). Scoliosis: incidence and natural history. A prospective epidemiological study. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 60 (2), 173-176. 3. Grivas T. B., Kasartzian A., Christin M., Mihas C., Aggouris C., Triantafyllopoulos G., et al. (2012). Study of back trunk asymmetry in children from three ethnic


Truncus arteriosus (TA) or common arterial trunk is a rare malformation, accounting for 0.21 to 0.34% of congenital heart diseases, which, if left untreated, leads to increased mortality rates. The condition is characterized by the presence of a unique arterial trunk that overrides the interventricular septum. Despite an overall poor outcome, few subjects present in emergency settings with signs suggestive for pulmonary arterial hypoplasia and associated heart failure. We report the case of a 31-year-old female patient who had been previously diagnosed with pulmonary atresia and severe scoliosis as an infant, presenting in the emergency department with clinical sings of decompensated heart failure which were demonstrated to be attributable to the severe cyanogenic heart malformation and were reversible after initiation of appropriate therapeutic measures.

Density and Ultrasonic Characterization of Oil Palm Trunk Infected by Ganoderma Boninense Disease

Oil palm trunks infected by Ganoderma boninense disease have been studied using density and ultrasonic characterizations. The ultrasonic characterizations have been performed using a commercial ultrasonic instrument at the frequency of 54 kHz. The measurements have been done in 3 zones: inner zone, central zone and peripheral zone. It was found that the stem density of the oil palm infected by Ganoderma boninense disease was reduced by 50% in comparison to the original healthy trunk. From this effect the velocity of the ultrasonic wave propagated through the Longitudinal, Radial, and Tangential directions is lower for the trunk infected by Ganoderma boninense disease compared to a healthy trunk. For the 10 cm thickness of samples, the ultrasonic velocity for all transit directions was in range of 260 - 750 ms-1 for the infected sample, whereas for healthy samples was in the range of 460 - 900 ms-1. These results are very useful for the detection of the area which has been affected by the disease.


Extensive tall-trunk orchards, an important element of the central European landscape since the Middle Ages, conserve potential for the future regarding their biodiversity, land use policy and agricultural value. For these reasons, extensive tall-trunk orchards are interesting with regard to nature conservation. Once the management of these low-productivity vegetation sites ceases, the habitat is threatened by successive overgrowth by shrub vegetation. Taking abandoned tall-trunk cherry orchards with dry/mesophilous grassland undergrowth in the locality of Kaňk as an example, the degree of colonization of orchards by woody species and differences in the structure of vegetation cover in different periods after abandonment were monitored. The results showed that the cover of cherry trees in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 30% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The cover of the herb layer in orchards abandoned before 1990 was approximately 60% lower than in orchards abandoned after 2000. The species diversity of orchards abandoned before 1990 was statistically significantly lower than that of orchards abandoned after 2000. The total cover of all species in habitat in areas of medieval ore extraction was approximately 50% lower than that in land originally used for farming.


Glioblastoma multiforme is a solid tumor with particular aspects due to its organ of origin and its development modalities. The brain is very sensitive to oxygen and glucose deprivation and it is the only organ that cannot be either transplanted or entirely removed. Furthermore, many clues and recent indirect experimental evidence indicate that the micro-infiltration of the whole brain parenchyma occurs in very early stages of tumor bulk growth or likely even before. As a consequence, the primary glioblastoma (IDH-wildtype, WHO 2016) is the only tumor where the malignant (i.e. distantly infiltrating the organ of origin) and deadly (i.e. leading cause to patient’s death) phases coincide and overlap in one single phase of its natural history. To date, the prognosis of optimally treated glioblastoma patients remains dismal despite recent fundamental progress in neurosurgical techniques which are enabling better maximal safe resection and survival outcome. Intratumor variegated heterogeneity of glioblastoma bulk due to trunk-branch evolution and very early micro-infiltration and settlement of neoplastic cells in the entire brain parenchyma are the reasons for resistance to current therapeutic treatments. With the aim of future innovative and effective therapies, this paper deals with the unique glioblastoma features, the appropriate research methods as well as the strategies to follow to overcome current causes of resistance.

References [1] Gajewski S., Gajewska M., Katulski R., Trunked Radio Solutions for Special Applications, ‘International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications’, 2014, Vol. 60, No 4. [2] Gajewski S., Sokół M., Gajewska M., Data Protection and Crypto Algorithms' Performance in RSMAD, IEEE 73rd Vehicular Technology Conf., VTC Spring 2011, Budapest, Hungary, May 2011. [3] Hartman D. et al., Initial Development of a SIP-/RTP-based Core Network for the TETRA Mobile Radio System Aiming at Transparent Availability of its Features in LTE, 16 VDE/ITG Fachtagung