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References Ali MA, Sundaraj K, Ahmad RB, Ahamed NU, Anamul M, Islam SSM. Evaluation of triceps brachii muscle strength during grip force exercise through surface electromyography. Biomed Res-India , 2014; 25: 351-6 Alizadehkhaiyat O, Fisher AC, Kemp GJ, Vishwanathan K, Frostick SP. Shoulder muscle activation and fatigue during a controlled forceful hand grip task. J Electromyogr Kinesiol , 2011; 21: 478-82 Ángyán L, Antal C, Ángyán Z. Reproduction of reaching movements to memorized targets in the lack of visual control. Acta Physiol Hung , 2007; 94: 179

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to describe and assess the energetic-metabolic activity of selected muscles of upper and lower extremities during Rotational Training (RT). The influence of RT on temperature changes in the biceps and triceps brachii muscles as well as the quadriceps and biceps femoris muscles of healthy university students were verified, in addition to temperature differences between the left and right side before and after RT. The study was conducted on 18 subjects. RT was conducted in accordance with accepted forms of training methodology of collective fitness. An important part of RT was the performance of circular and rotational movements. Thermograms taken before and immediately after RT focused on 4 regions of selected agonists and synergists in the upper and lower body. The camera used was the infrared hand-held CEDIP Titanium 560M IR (USA), located at a distance of 10 m from the subject. After RT, median Tsk (skin temperature) decreased in almost all of the examined ROIs, except for the left and right Qf (the quadriceps femoris, rectus femoris, and sartorius muscles) as well as the left Tb (triceps brachii) in female subjects. In male subjects, left and right Tsk of Qf increased both for the left and right Tb. Left-Right ΔTsk (temperature difference) was statistically significant (p <0.05) for Of, Bf, Bb, Tb in female as well as male subjects. It was concluded that thermography is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method for the recording of physiological response of the skin to RT.

line of reasoning since the elevation of neuromuscular demand across sets was accompanied by continuous increases in BLC across sets and a reduction in the EMGMF response across the repetitions. However, for the triceps brachii muscle, Protocol 4 s: 2 s did not present a higher EMGRMS response than Protocol 2 s: 4 s. This result indicates that when the Smith bench press exercise was completed to muscle failure, the 2 s difference between protocols did not influence the normalized triceps brachii EMGRMS response. Previous research showed greater triceps brachii muscle

be reasonable to apply some alternative method in assessing tendon and muscles viscoelastic properties. Additionally, there is a lack of myotonometric studies on athletes in recent literature. We could find only few relevant studies, mostly in clinical approaches i.e. muscle belly and tendon in patients with Parkinson disease (Marusiak et al., 2011) and biceps and triceps brachii muscles in patients with subacute stroke (Chuang et al., 2012) . It should be underlined that the muscle-tendon complex (gastrocnemii muscle and AT) plays an important role in each

respective movement velocity) on performance of bench press throws (BPT) performed during the next 12 min. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of the pectoralis major and triceps Brachii muscles was also measured to examine changes in muscle activation during the BPT trials. Methods Participants Power calculations indicated a minimum sample size of 8 participants would be needed to detect an effect size (ES) of 0.4, obtained from the average ES reported in the meta-analysis of Wilson et al. (2013) for the effects of CA on muscle power (repeated measures ANOVA power = 0

during repeated wingate trials: implications for testing. J Strength Cond Res , 2010; 24: 370-374 19620898 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b06f41 Kohler RM Rundell KW Evans TM Levine AM. Peak power during repeated wingate trials: implications for testing J Strength Cond Res 2010 24 370 374 Kounalakis SN, Koskolou MD, Geladas ND. Oxygen saturation in the triceps brachii muscle during an arm Wingate test: the role of training and power output. Res Sports Med , 2009; 17: 171-181 19731177 10.1080/15438620903120421 Kounalakis SN Koskolou MD Geladas ND. Oxygen saturation in the

dominant side or not. The grounding electrode was placed on the connection with the triceps brachii muscle. Video recording was used for identification of the beginning and completion of the movement. After completion of all the tests in a single day, 2-3 s evaluations of static bench press movements were performed in order to normalize electromyographic records according to the SENIAM procedure. The analysis was based on peak activity during the bench press (both from the eccentric and concentric phases). Statistical Analysis The data were processed using Statistica

triceps brachii muscle compared to the 100% BAD width ( Barnett et al., 1995 ; Lehman, 2005 ; Maszczyk et al., 2016 ). Although some previous studies have demonstrated significant differences in strength and power generated depending on the width of the grip used during the BP ( Lockie et al., 2017a , 2017b ), none of them referred to different movement tempos during the BP exercise. The movement tempo is usually described using a sequence of digits (e.g. 2/0/X/0), where each digit determines the duration (s) of a particular phase of the movement. Since there is no

progression order that included forearm muscles (90 s), deltoid muscles (90 s), biceps brachii muscle (90 s) and triceps brachii muscles (90 s) for similar total duration of 6 minutes. All testing sessions were performed in the same location, at the same temperature and at the same time of day. Statistical Analysis The interaction effects between time (PRE vs . POST; fixed effect) and groups (CON vs . SMR; fixed effect) were tested using linear mixed models. The p -value was determined with a type III ANOVA using Satterthwaite's degrees of freedom method. The level