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(Cochlospermum gossypium): A tree gum from India. Food Hydrocoll. 2008;22:899-915. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2007.05.006. [80] Vinod VTP, Sashidhar RB, Sarma VUM, Vijaya Saradhi UVR. Compositional analysis and rheological properties of gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): A tree gum from India. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:2199-207. DOI: 10.1021/jf072766p. [81] Anderson DMW, Dea ICM. Studies on uronic acid materials: Part XXX. Examination of three fractions obtained from acacia drepanolobium gum. Carbohydr Res. 1968;8:440-447. DOI: 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)81528-1. [82] Fauconnier

Abstract

Recently electrospinning has gained significant attention due to unique possibilities to produce novel natural nanofibers and fabrics with controllable pore structure. The present study focuses on the fabrication of electrospun fibres based on gum karaya (GK), a natural tree gum, with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and functionalization of the membrane with TiO2 nanoparticles with further methane plasma treatment. The GK/PVA/TiO2 membrane was analyzed with several techniques including: fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and water contact angle, in order to characterize its morphological and physicochemical properties. The GK/PVA/TiO2 membrane was further successfully used for the degradation (under UV irradiation) of bisphenol A and diclofenac from aqueous solution. It was also observed that the degradation kinetics of these compounds are faster in comparison to the UV treatment alone.

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about the role of jasmonates in ethylene production by pathogenic fungi is ambiguous. In this study, we describe the effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and gums formed in stone fruit trees on the growth and in vitro ethylene production by mycelium of Verticillium dahliae and Alternaria alternata. Methyl jasmonate at concentrations of 100, 250 and 500 μg·cm-3 inhibited the mycelium growth of V. dahliae and A. alternata, proportionally to the concentrations used. After 8 days of incubation, JA-Me at concentration of 500 μg·cm-3 limited the area of mycelium of these pathogens by 7-8 times but did not entirely inhibited the pathogen growth. Addition of gums produced by trees of cherry and peach to a medium containing 40 μg·cm-3 JA-Me did not influence the mycelium growth of V. dahliae, but gums of plum and apricot trees stimulated mycelium growth, in comparison to JA-Me only. Methyl jasmonate at concentrations of 2 and 40 μg·cm-3 stimulated the ethylene production by mycelium of V. dahliae and A. alternata. It is possible that methyl jasmonate stimulated ethylene production in mycelium of these pathogens through interaction with some fractions of galactans formed during hydrolysis of agar. The lack of interaction of JA-Me with polysaccharides of stone fruit trees gums concerning ethylene production was documented and it needs further explanation.

, Maury L, Brossard C. (1994). Rheological behavior of saturated polyglycolysed glycerides. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.   46 , 538-541. Desbrieres J. (2002). Viscosity of semiflexible chitosan solutions: Influence of concentration, temperature, and role of intermolecular interactions. Biomacromolecules   3 , 342-349. Desbrieres J., Martinez C., Rinaudo M. (1996). Hydrophobic derivatives of chitosan: Characterization and rheological behavior. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.   19 , 21-28. de Paula RCM, Rodrigues JF. (1995). Composition and rheological properties of cashew tree gum

[1] Aléssio, F. M., Mendes Pontes, A. R., Luna Da Silva, V. (2005): Feeding by Didelphis albiventris on tree gum in the northeastern Atlantic forest of Brazil. Mastozool. Neotrop., 12(1): 37–52 [2] Bodini Santiago, M. E., Vasconcelos, R. O., Reinaldo Fattori, K., Prado Munari, D., Michelin, A. D. F., Lima, V. M. F. (2007): An investigation of Leishmania spp. in Didelphis spp. from urban and peri-urban areas in Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil). Vet. Parasitol., 150(4): 283–290. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.09.026 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.09.026 [3] Bolpe, J

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